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" Our provincial dialects, instead of being the barbarous jargons repre- 
sented by the lexicographers of the last century, are in truth the real wells 
of ' English undefiled,' and their investigation is of great importance to the 
philologer, as well for the numerous archaic and otherwise obsolete words 
which they have preserved to us, as for the light they throw upon the 
origin and structure of our written language."--C7iaw&ers, 1858. 









The main object of the following work is to form a record 
of the general idiom of the county of Cumberland, as 
in use at the present day, and from the end of the last 
century; and, in so doing, to endeavour to convey the 
sense in which each word is provincially understood. This 
could not be effected without strict attention to adapt the 
spelling to the sound, and thus the orthography of many 
words and phrases became materially altered from the form 
in which it is'presented in existing glossaries. 

Mr. Sullivan, in his excellent and learned work,* has 
very justly said — "Should any proper attempt be made at 
producing a Cumberland Glossary, the orthography would 
not be one of its least difficulties." Truly this difficulty 
has been experienced, and it is hoped has been met in an 
acceptable way. 

The chief alteration will be found in the introduction 
of an additional or duplicate consonant as expressive of 
emphasis or accent, and in part as a phonetic accommo- 
dation. Thus, the Cumberland equivalents for the word 
"hot" are "het" and "heatt," and tbe latter would be 

* "Cumberland and Westmorland, Ancient and Modern: the People, 
Dialecj;, Superstitions, and Customs." 1857. 


" heat," and would convey a different meaning, but for 
the additional and accented letter; and so with many 
similar words.* 

In treating of Cumberland words, it must be borne in 
mind that, small as the county is, having an area of only 
a little over fifteen hundred square miles, it possesses its 
geography of language, ranging across the county in 
tolerably distinct bands, and each preserving its substan- 
tive identity with the fidelity attaching to a national lan- 
guage, but occasionally shading into and blending with 
the others, its immediate neighbours. The most clearly 
defined band or belt of dialect extends across the centre 
of the county, and its southern boundary may be traced 
on a map by a line commencing where the river Ehen 
discharges its waters into the sea, ascending the course of 
that stream to Egremont, and along the water- shed of the 
ancient forest of Copeland, passing the head of Borrow- 
dale to Dunmail liaise, thence along the south east and 
eastern boundary of the county to Kirkland, and by the 
base of the Black Fell mountain range to Croglin, and 
turning westward through the once royal forest of Ingle- 
wood, by Warnel, Brocklebank, and Aspatria, to Allonby, 
on the shore of the Sol way. To the southward of this 
district the words and the mode of pronunciation and 
expression gradually merge into those of Lancashire; to 
the northward, into the Scotch; and to the extreme .north- 
east, into the Northumbrian, partaking in some measure 
of the burr peculiar to parts of that county. 

The ancient dialect appears to have been chiefly com- 
posed of words of one or two syllables, a few words of three 
syllables, and perhaps none of more; or if any of more 

* Mr. Sullivan truly remarks on the literature of this county, that 
'* the writer always endeavours to give faithfully the dialect as he has heard 
and spoken it in his own neighbourhood ; and the birth-place of the author 
is, as it were, the key to the peculiarities of his orthography." 

were used, they would seem open to the suspicion of "being 
compounds or importations. 

There are many idiomatic peculiarities appertaining to 
the dialects, or rather to the varying dialect of the county, 
such as contracting the article the into t\ in the southern 
and central parts of the county,* hut not in the north- 
eastern part. Another is the common note of assent, um, 
pronounced with the lips closed. A third consists in the 
entire absence of the terrain ative ing in all words of more 
than one syllable, and in its being substituted by in, and 
more frequently an, and by its retention in monosyllabic 
words. The affix ed is compensated by an abbreviated 't, 
and those of ly and ish are in frequent use as approximates 
or diminutives, e.g. coldly, coldish, wetly, wettish, &c. The 
terminative ght in right, tight, sight, and similar words, 
was formerly, and even within memory, pronounced resht, 
tesht, seesht, &c, or by aspirating the gh. Ho! and Hoo! 
are common expletives at the commencement of a reply, 
and especially if the replicant deems the question some- 
what irrelevant or unimportant, as Ho nay ! Hoo ey ! 

The English language has no equivalent to the vowel 
sound in the way the word brust (burst) is pronounced. 
It is not the u, the e, nor the i, but a kind of compromise 
between the e and the i. The word run is in a similar 
predicament, it being frequently pronounced in a half-way 
sound between rin and ran, and partly approaching to ren, 
but not strictly coinciding with the sound of any of them. 

A few words are common to both extremes of the county 

* By the uniting of the article to the verb or substantive, the following 
ludicrous specimens become explanatory or puzzling, as the reader may 

1. — "Twether an' twasps hes spoilt o' trasps" — The weather and the 

wasps have spoiled all the rasps. 
2. — Shoemaker: "Wife; whoars twax?" 

Wife: "Its a twatter a twinda, aside twatch." 


which are not used centrally, as craa, haak, &c, for crow, 

Some words are differently pronounced in different parts 
of the county, although the spelling may indicate a simi- 
larity of sound ; and vice versa. Seathwaite in Borrowdale 
is pronounced as Sea-thwaite or whate, while Seatlrwaite 
on the Duddon is Seathet — the e and a in sea being dis- 
tinct. Calthwaite near Penrith, and Scothwaite near Ireby, 
are both pronounced as o long — Cothet and Scothet : and 
a few other words and proper names are pronounced in an 
equally arbitrary manner. 

There are shades and variations of pronunciation and 
accent in the districtal dialects which are extremely diffi- 
cult to explain ; and which can only be properly understood 
on hearing the native speakers in unrestrained colloquial 
glee, or in angry recrimination. 

The strangeness of some words and expressions cannot 
be duly estimated from the sound alone, and on seeing 
them set out in print their ludicrousness becomes manifest : 
for instance, " yannanudder" — one another; "dudta" — 
did thou, &c. It is not enough to enumerate the words 
believed to be purely Cumbrian. There are many con- 
tractions, corruptions, and combinations now current, which 
custom and time are gradually incorporating into the 
dialect, and which another generation or two will stamp as 
provincialisms ; and without a key to such, a stranger 
would encounter many difficulties in ordinary conversation 
with an un travelled native, 

A great variety of words are in common use expressive 
of the superlative or extraordinary ; of beating or punish- 
ing ; and of idiocy or weak-mindedness. 

It is in these combinations, and other changes, that the 
connection of our dialect with other tongues is made 
apparent to the searcher into languages. For those reasons, 

the seeming redundancy of words in the following collection 
may be held excusable. 

It is hardly necessary to apologise for any unseemly 
words which may be thought to occur : if any such are 
supposed to be found, it is equally certain they are requisite 
to complete the work, to the exclusion of more offensive 

The whole collection has been made in the intervals of 
business, extending over many years, and has been found 
an agreeable change, and a serviceable relaxation ; and it is 
hoped the occasional perusal may be similarly acceptable. 

It may here be remarked, that a considerable portion of 
the labouring population, occupied in mining, draining, 
and other earth-works, consists of Irishmen, who, with their 
families, make the western side of the county a permanent 
residence ; or at least till the labour market tempts a re- 
moval to better paid localities. And notwithstanding this 
influx, the Irishisms engrafted on the native dialect are 
singularly few, if indeed any. Their children reared here 
acquire the dialect as perfect as the natives, and soon use 
not a trace of their mother tongue : and even the parents, 
in many instances, abandon their own idiom, and learn to 
use the speech of their adopted country. 

It is somewhat different with the Scotch and the 
labourers from the borders, who nearly all retain the ex- 
pressions and the peculiar inflexions of their national 
speech to their dying day. And some of their descendants, 
are known to retain sufficient to distinguish their nation- 
ality over more than one generation. * 

Derivations are sparingly given, from various sources, 
the subject being misty and difficult, and tending frequently 

* "The English are barbarians — stable in their manners, and firmly 
continue to employ the same words, which are also dear to the gods." — 

to mislead, according to the bias of the investigator, or his 
better acquaintance with certain languages. They are also 
subject to be lost in the altered acceptation of the original 
terms, and consequently are not all given with confidence.* 

Whatever disparagement may be imputed to the homely, 
and in some measure uncouth speech and manners peculiar 
to this county, its dialect should scarcely be subjected to 
the epithet of vulgar ; for though partially unwritten by 
antiquity, and apparently doomed as to the future, it is far 
more ancient, though less harmonious, than the English of 
the present day. Even the cockneyism of the metropolis 
has its dialect ; and however refined in its application, it is 
not the less vulgar to the ears of those who may not have 
been trained to its use. f 

There is, at least, one creditable peculiarity in the 
dialect of Cumberland; and this is, its comparative free- 
dom, except among the labouring classes in towns, from the 
contemptible slang engrafted into most others. 

All the glossaries and publications in the county dialect, 
hitherto met with by the author, are local, and unavoidably 
provincial ; or are indiscriminately intermixed, and conse- 
quently imperfect. An attempt is made to render this one 
more perfect, by localising each word and phrase. It may 
be incomplete, through lapse of memory, or the infrequent 

* " Authors have not comprehended the system of the ancients in giving 
names. Labouring under this disadvantage, they have unfortunately been 
tenacious of their opinions, and, in rendering names, have adopted words 
of corresponding sounds from whatever language they could collect them; 
often, very often, too, without any fidelity to exactness, and still more 
frequently without any conformity to design. Hence they have led us into 
difficulties which discrimination will scarcely extricate for a considerable 
time." — Dyer's Bestoration of the ancient modes of bestowing names on the 
Pavers, Hills, &c. 

•f As one instance, the word finger is pronounced in Cumberland as it is 
written. In schools, and in conventional society, it is pronounced as if it con- 
tained a g in each syllable, and both sounded hard, as, fing-ger. 

use and opportunity of hearing terms now nearly obsolete. 
Such defect, if found to exist, is intended to have some 
pains bestowed on its remedy, if the compiler's friends will 
kindly supply him with the omitted words and peculiarities 
of speech or customs : * it being his anxious wish to render 
his volume (of vulgarities, as some may term it,) as complete 
as the nature of the subject will allow, though the varying 
and intermixing speech of the different parts of the county 
hitherto presents an insurmountable barrier to the attain- 
ment of absolute perfection. 

The sources from which information has been derived 
are, a frequent, or rather an almost continuous, personal 
business intercourse with nearly all classes of the rural 
inhabitants of nearly every parish in the county during the 
greater part of a half-century; the inspection of various 
glossaries of Cumberland and north-country words ; a rigid 
search through the publications met with in the dialect of 
the county ; the contributions of friends ; an intimate 
acquaintance with the mother tongue of the county, and a 
life-long residence in the central district described. 

I am indebted for a few ancient words, still partially in 
use here, to " A Restitvtion of Decayed Intelligence in 
antiquities. By the study, and travell of R. Y. (Richard 
Verstegan.) London, 1634." f For a revisal of the words 
and phrases of the south-western district, I am indebted to 

* Mr. Sullivan very properly appeals to " persons possessed of local infor- 
mation, to place it on record ere it b e lost " He urges upon them " not to be 
hindered by the vulgar notion that traits of manners and fragments of super- 
stition are subjects of no value/' " Let us save what we can, if it only be a 
remnant." I heartily respond to his appeal.— W. D. 

t In ch. 7, Verstegan quaintly writes, " Of the great antiqvity of our 
ancient English tongue; and of the propriety, worthines, and amplitude 
thereof. "With an explanation of sundry our most ancient English words." 
He says, " Ovr ancient English Saxon language is to be accompted the 
Teutonicke tongue, and albeit we have in latter ages mixed it with many 
borrowed words, especially out of the Latin and French, yet remaineth the 

the kindness of Mr. Caddy, of Rougholm, near Ravenglass ; 
and of those of the extreme north-eastern district, to the 
very competent assistance of Mr. D. Tweddle, of Working- 
ton, a native of the parish of Stapleton. The kindness of 
Mr. John Dixon, of Whitehaven, is gratefully acknow- 
ledged, in foregoing his intention to publish a work of a 
similar kind, and in placing the axis of his collection at 
my disposal. Mr. Barker, of Greystoke, has heartily con- 
tributed the benefit of his intimate knowledge of the dialect 
of his neighbourhood, and of its geographical limits; and 
to William Randleson, Esq., of Croft-Hill, Whitehaven, a 
native of Scotby, near Carlisle, T am indebted for a perusal 
of Brockett's Glossary, containing sundry valuable manu- 
script notes and memorandums, relating to the subject. 

Finally, examples are given of the application of many 
words and terms, as being more recognisable than the dry 

Teutonicke unto this day the ground of our speech; for no other offspring 
hath our language originally had then that. 

" This language undoubtedly is that which at the confusion of Babel 
the Teutonicke people (those I mean that were conducted by Tuisco) did 
speake. And as the people tooke their name after their conductor, so the 
language consequently tooke name of the people.' 











Bit son. 




Turner (Sharon). 




Anglo Saxon. 

L. S. 

Lower Saxon. 


Belgic or Dutch. 









0. E. 

Old English. 




























Ya neet aa was takkan a rist an' a smeukk, 
An' snoozlan an' beekan my shins at t' grate neukk, 
When aa thowt aa wad knock up a bit ov a beukk 
Aboot t' words 'at we use in oald Cunrmerlan'. 

Aa boddert my brains thinkan some o' them ower, 
An' than set to wark an' wreatt doon three or fower 
0' t' kaymtest an' t' creuktest, like "garrak" an' "dyke stoweiy 
Sek like as we use in oald Cummerlan.' 

It turnt oot three-cornert, cantankeras wark, 
An' keep't yan at thinkan fray dayleet till dark; 
An' at times a queer word would lowp up wid a yark, 
'At was reet ebm doon like oald Cummerlan. 

John Dixon, o' Whitt'en, poo't oot ov his kist, 
Ov words 'at he thowt to hev prentit, a list; 
An' rayder ner enny reet word sud be mist 

Yan wad ratch ivry neukk ov oald Cummerlan'. 

Than Deawy fray Steappleton hitcht in a lock, 
An' Jwony ov Ruffom gev some to my stock; 
Than, fray Cassel Graystick a list com, fray Jock; 
They o' eekt a share for oald Cummerlan'. 

Friend Eannelson offert his beukks, an* o' t' rest 
(0 man! bit he 's full ov oald stories — the best); 
Aa teukk am at word, an' aa harry't his nest 
Ov oald-farrant words ov oald Cummerlan'. 

Than naybers an' friends browt words in sa fast, 
An' chattert an' laft till they varra nar brast, 
To think what a beukk wad come oot on 't at last — 
Full o' nowt bit oald words ov oald Cummerlan'. 

Than, who can e'er read it — can enny yan tell? 
Nay, niwer a body bit t' writer his sel! 
An' what can be t' use, if it o' be to spell 
Afoor yan can read its oald Cummerlan'? 


July 15th, 1859. 





The letter C. denotes the word or phrase to be used in the 
central parts of the county; S.W., in the south-west; E. and N.E., 
in the east and north-east; and G., generally over the county. 


Aa, G, I — pronounced as in harm. 

Jarleton, C, Arlecdon parish and village. 

Arthra, C, S.W, Ayrthur, N.E, Arthur. 

Aaz, Ize, G, I is, or I am. 

^apral, S.W, Aapral, N.E, Aypril, C, April. 

Aback, G-, behind. Icel. a-bak, backward. 

Abba, G, abbey. 

Abby, G, Abigail. 

Aboot, C, N.E, Abawte, S.W, about. 

Abeunn, C, Abooan, S.W, Aboon, N.E., above. 

Abreed, C, to extend or spread. Sax. abred-an, to lengthen. 

Aby, C, Aabram, S.W, Abraham. 

Ac, G, to heed. Scand. akta, to make account of. 

Accword, G, accord. 

Adveyce, N.E, advice. 


Afeart, C, afraid. Sax. afeard. 

Afeutt, C, Afooat, S.W, Afoote, N.E, on foot. I 

Afoor, C, Afwore, S.W, Afore, N.E, before. 

Afword, G, afford. 

Age, C, Yage, N.E, to grow old. " He begins to age." 

Ageann, C, N.E, Again, S.W, again. Old Eng. agen. 

Ageann t' hand, C, inconveniently placed, interfering with pro- 

Ageatt, G, going, on the way, on foot again, progressing. 

Aggy, G, Agnes. 

Aglet, Tag, C, S.W, Yiglet, N.E., the metalled end of a boot- 
lace, &c. 

Airly, G, early. 

Airs, C, humours. "He 's in his airs to-day" — he 's in a bad 

Airy, G, breezy. " It ? s rayder airy to-day." 

Ajye, G, awry, on one side, oblique. 

Akkern, G, acorn. 

Alag, N.E, a term used in calling geese together. 

Alang, Gr, along. 

Aleann, Gr, alone. 

Alebm, C, S.W, Aleeven, N.E, eleven. 

Allan, G-, a piece of land nearly surrounded by a stream. Sax, 
ea, water, Ian, waterland. 

Alliblaster, G, alabaster. 

Ally, G-, the aisle of a church. 

A-loddin, G, not engaged, on offer. 

Alongst,* C, along. 

Am, G, him. " Catcham an hoddam an whackam weel! " 

Amackily, G, in some fashion, partly. 

Amang, G, among. 

Amang hands, G, among other things. 

Ameasst, C, S.W, Ameeast, N.E, almost. 

Amess ! C, a kind of oath, a note of verification. " Amess it is ! ' ; 

An, G. ; ing, as a terminative, is pronounced an. 

Aneost, C, S.W., Fornenst,+ N.E, opposite to, over against. 

* Used in old deeds. + Anempst in some old writings. 

Angry, G, much inflamed and painful. Scand. angra, to torment. 

Angs, C, S.W, Aaias, N.E, awns. 

Ang nails, C, Ang-er nails, N.E, jags around the nails, nails 
grown into the flesh. High G-er. ungnagle. 

Aneiiff, C, Anoo, S.W, Aneugh, N.E, enough (as relating to 

Anew, G, enough (as relating to number). 

Anonder, G, under, beneath. 

Ten schypmen to lond yede, 

To see the yle in length and brede, 

And fet water as hem was nede, 

The rocke anondyr. — Bom. of Octavian Imp. 

Anters, N.E, in case (? perhaps). " Or anters in yon moulder- 
ing heap." — Stagg's Poems. 

April gowk, April noddy, C, April feull, N.E, April fool. An 
old custom exists, among young people, of leading persons 
into some trifling error on the morning of April Day, to be 
laughed at, and called April gowks. 

Arbittary, C, arbitrary. 

Arch hole, C, Slit hole, S.W, Bowel hole, N.E, a vent hole in a 
barn, &c. 

Ard, Aird, N.E, (? high.) Boucher says in his glossary — "It 
is, however, in Cumberland only that I happen to have 
heard the term used abstractedly, to describe the quality 
of a place, a country, or a field ; thus, ard land means a 
dry, parched, arid soil, which no doubt is but its secondary 
sense, such lands being dry, parched, &c, only because 
they lie high." I never heard the term in Cumberland; it 
may mean hard, or firm. — W.D. In Gael, ard means high. 

Argy, G, argue, signify. " It duzzent argy" — it does not signify. 

Argyfye, G, to debate. 

Ark, G, Airk, N.E, a chest; as meal-ark, &c. Ang.-Sax. arc. 

Arr, C, S.W, Err, N.E, a scar from a wound, a cicatrice. Icel. 
aer, Dan. ar. 

Arridge, G, an angular edge (arris in architecture). 

Arse breed, G, a contemptible width or extent. "His heall 
land 's nobbet an arsebreed." 

Arsewurts, G, backwards. An early Methodist preacher in 

Workington used to enlighten his hearers with. " Aa wad 

as seun expect a swine to gang arsewurts up a tree, as a 

rich man to git to heaven." 
Art, C, S.W, Airt, N.E, point of the compass, quarter. Germ. 

ort, place, direction. 
Aside, C, Aseyde, N.E, beside. 
Ask, G, the lizard and newt. G-ael. asc. 
Ass, G, ashes. Sax. asce. 
Ass, Ax, C, Aas, N.E, Ex, S.W, ask, enquire. 
Asseltree, G, axle. Gael, aisil. 
Ass trug, C, S.W, Ass beurd, N.E, ashes box. 
Asteed, G, instead. 
Attercop, C, S.W, Speyther wob, Cockweb, N.E, spider's web. 

Sax. atter, poison, and coppe, a cup — in allusion to the 

supposed venom of the spider. 
At is e. At is a, G, that I am. " Aa 's cum to advise tha, at 

is e." — Anderson. 
Atomy, C, a skeleton. 

Atshison, C, Atkison, S.W, Atshin, N.E, Atkinson. 
Avarst, C, S.W, a vast deal. 
Awful, C, ^aful, S.W, Aaf&, N.E. The meaning of this term 

is much corrupted, and is used to express anything extra- 
ordinary ; as, " awful nice," &c. 
Awivver, C, S.W, Awuvver, N.E, however. 
Awriddy, C, ^ariddy, S.W, N.E, already. 
Awtin, S.W, outing, a jaunt. 

Ax, As, C, Ex, S.W, ask. "Ne axe I nat to-morwe. ''—Chaucer. 
Axt at church, Hung int hell reapp, C, " Cry't i' the Kurk," 

N.E, having had the banns published. 
Ayder, Iyder, Owder, C, S.W, Owder, N.E, either. 
Aydle, C, Addle, S.W, Ettle, N.E, to earn. 
Aydlins, C, Adlins, S.W, Etlins, N.E, earnings. 
Aye, N.E, always. Sax. aw a. 
Ayga, C, S.W, Yigga, N.E, ague. 
Ayont, N.E, beyond. 
Ayrm, N.E, arm. 
Aywas, C, N.E, anywise, always, 


Baak, N.E, a balk or beam. 

Baald, Baal, N.E, bold, impudent. 

Babby, C, baby. 

Babblement, G, silly discourse. 

Backen, G, to retard. 

Back bred, G, bred late in the year or season. 

Back bword, G, a board to roll dough upon, bake board. 

Back side, G, the back yard. 

Back stick, G, the rod connecting the footboard of the spinning 

wheel with the crank, N.E, sword. 
Bad, Bed, G, bid. 

Bad bread, C ; to be out of favour is to be in bad bread. 
Baddan, C, Bad in, N.E, bad one, the evil one. 
Badger, C, S.W, Badger body, N.E, a person who buys corn, 

and retails the meal ground at the mill of another: a tra- 
velling dealer in butter, &c. 
Badly, C, poorly, out of health. 
Baffle, G, to confound, to defeat by stratagem. Boucher says, 

" to treat with indignity, to expose." I have not heard the 

word so used. — W, D. 
Bag, G, the belly, the udder of the cow. 
Baggabone, C, vagabond. 
Baggin, C, provisions taken into the field for workmen ; query, 

in a bag. 
Baggish, G, baggage — a term of reproach to a child or female. 

" A dirty baggish." 
Bagwesh, C, poverty and disrepute. " He 's gone to bagwesh." 
Baily, Bumbaily, C, Bum, S.W, Baily, N.E, bailiff, sheriffs 

officer. Baili, a steward, bailiff, &c, Old Irish. 
Bain, C, N.E, Gain, S.W, handy, willing, near. "It's a bain 

lad, poor thing!" "Yon's t' bainest way." Scand. beinn, 

Ball money, N.E., money given by wedding parties at the 

church gates to children, to buy balls. In some parishes 

the scholars buy coals with this money for the school fires. 


The men give threepence each ; if booted and spurred, 

sixpence: women give nothing. In the west, the money is 

given without rule, and is spent in sweets. 
Baltute, C, the bald coot. 
Bam, C, a falsehood, trick, cheat. 
Ban, N.E,band. 

Band, C, a boundary on high and unenclosed land. 
Bandylowe, C, a prostitute. 
Bang, G, to beat, to excel ; an act of haste. " He was bad to 

bang." " He com in wid a bang." 
Banger, G, anything great. " It is a banger ! " 
Bannister, G, balluster. 
Bannock, C, Bannick, N.E, thick oat-cake, usually made for the 

harvest-home or kern supper. 
Banty, C, the bantam, a dwarfish person or animal. 
Bark, G, to peel the skin or bark off, to unbark. " He barkt 

his nokles ower tudder fellow's scalp." 
Bark at t' heck, C, to wait outside the door. 
Barkent, C, dirt hardened on, to make crisp like bark, hide- 
bound, stiff. 
Barley play, C, a term used by boys bespeaking a cessation of 

their game. 
Barn, C, S.W, Bairn, N.E, a child, a term of familiarity. " Barn, 

thoo mun come in, thoo 's like." Ang.-Sax. beam. 
Barn-time, C, the period of fruitfulness in women. 
Barrin out, C, school-boj's bar the teacher out at Christmas, 

and negociate for holidays before admitting him. 
Base, G, bass. " He sings base at church." 
Bash away ! C, N.E, work vigorously, strike hard. 
Bass, G, the perch. 

Bat, G, a blow, a stroke ; condition (see Oald bat). 
Batch, C, N.E, a sack of corn prepared for being ground at the 

mill, a pack of cards. 
Batter, C, a drinking bout, dirt. " Dick 's been on t' batter two 

or three days, an he 's cum in o bleudd an batter ower." 
Battins, C, corn in a half thrashed state. 
Baurgh, C, a horse way up a steep hill. — Mr. Randleson. 

Baze, C, to prize or lift with a lever. 

Beaddless, C, impatient of suffering. 

Beakk, G. bake. 

Beanns, C, S.W, Beanes, N.E, bones, bad people. " He 's a bad 
beann ! " 

Bearr, C, Bwore, S.W, Beur, N.E, bore, did bare. 

Bearr, C, S.W, bare, naked. 

Beasst, G-, to baste. 

Beatt, Gr, abate ; did bite. " Our dog beatt a lump out o' Tommy 
Tidy lad leg." 

Beatth, C, S.W, Beeath, N.E, both. 

Beck, C, S.W, Burn, N.E, a brook, streamlet. Dan. bak. 

Beeast, S.W, beast Lan. 

Beeans, S.W, beans. Lan. 

Beek, C, N.E, Beeak, S.W, to heat hazel or other rods to cause 
them to bend more easily for basket making purposes ; to 
bask by the fire. 

Beel, C, N.E, Beeal, S.W, to bellow, bawl. Scand. to bellow. 

Beeldin, N.E, building. 

Beer, G, to bear. 

Beermouth, Barramouth, C, an adit or level dug in a hill side. 

Bees, N.E : the superstitious believe that bees sing the Old 
Hundredth Psalm on Christmas morning. C : if one of 
the family where bees are kept die, one of the household 
conveys the intelligence to the hives ; and on the day of 
the funeral, before the procession leaves the house, the 
bees are again informed that the body is about to be 
lifted.* This is believed to prevent ill-luck to the hives 
and honey. 

Beese, C, Beeas, S.W, beasts, cattle. 

Beestins, 0, the milk from a new-calved cow. Sax. bysting. 

Beeat, S.W, to beat. Lan. 

Beet t' yubm, C, to supply sticks, &c, to the oven while heating. 

Behodden, C, S.W, Behadden, N.E, beholden, obligated. 

Belangs, Perlangs, G-, belongs. 

* The last case I knew of was at Asby, in the parish of Arlecdon, in 
1855.— Mr. Bandleson. 

Belk, C, N.E, belch, an eructation. Lower Sax. bolckan. 

Bellar, C, N.E, to bellow. 

Bellt, N.E, bald. 

Belly-ryne, C, Belly-rim, N.E, the membrane enclosing the 

Bellican, C, an obese person or animal. 
Belliz, C, N.E, bellows. 

Benk, C, Bink, N.E, a low bank or ledge of rock. 
Bennish, N.E, banish, to forbid of the house. 
Bensal, C, to beat. " Asl bensal ta." Goth, bania, a blow. 
Bent, C, bleak. " Yon 's a bent pleass o yours." 
Berry, C, to thrash corn. Scand. beria, to beat. 
Berryin skin, C, S.W, a dried (horse's) skin, used for thrashing 

upon, to prevent the grain sticking into the clay floor of 

the barn. 
Besom out, G, a signal that open house is kept — the wife being 

from home. 
Bessy blakelin, C, Yalla yowdering, N.E, the yellow-hammer or 

yellow bunting. 
Bessy black- cap, C, the black-headed bunting. 
Bettermer, G, of the better sort. " The bettermer swort sat 

snug in the parlour." — Anderson. 
Beukk, C, N.E, Booak, S.W, a book. 
Beuss, C, N.E, Booas, S.W, a stall for a cow or horse. Ang.- 

Sax. bds. 
Beutt-money, Boot-money, C, money given to equalise an 

exchange. (Bote. It is a yielding of amends, or sup- 
plying a defect. — Verstegan.) 
Beutts, C, N.E, Booats, S.W, boots. 
Beutt stockings, C, Hoggers, Fots, N.E, upper stockings, devoid 

of feet, and long enough to cover half the thigh — much 

worn by elderly men about and before 1800. 
Bew, Bu, G, a bough or branch. 
Beyble, N.E, the Bible. Sco. 
Beyont, Ayont, G, beyond. 
Beyt, N.E, bite. Sco. 
Bicker, N.E, a small wooden vessel, used for porridge, &c, 

made with a handle like a Geggin, which see — "Aal tak a 
stap out o thy bicker" (I '11 reduce the size of the vessel 
thy food is supplied in — I'll give thee less food and more 
work or correction). C, a quarrel. 

Bid, G, to invite. Ang.-Sax. biddan. See Bridewain. 

Biddable, G, obedient, tractable. 

Biddy, C, a nursery name for a louse; Bridget. 

Bide, C, S.W, Beyde, N.E, to abide, bear, stay, remain, suffer, 

Big, G. to build. Sax. bycgan, to build up. 

Biggin, G-, a building. Dan. bygning. 

Biggan, S.W, N.E, the act of building. 

Billy, N.E, brother. Sco. 

Bile, C, Beel, N.E, a boil, an inflammation preparing to sup- 

Binsh, C, N.E, bench. Sax. bcence. 

Bindin, C, a long rod or binder used in hedge making. 

Bink, N.E, a row of peats, &c, piled up. 

Birk, Burk, G, birch. 

Bir, Bur, G, any rapid whirling motion, also the sound pro- 
duced by the motion. Scand. bir, & breeze. 

Bishopt, G, burnt in the pan. 

Bit, G, but, piece. " Knock 't to bits, bit doont waste it." 

Bit, G, position, station. " He 's gittan poorish, an pincht to 
hod his bit." 

Bit, N.E, little. " The bit lad." 

Bit thing, N.E, small and insignificant. 

Bitter-bump, Mire-drum, C, the bittern. This bird is now a 
very rare visitor, and is not known to breed here. The 
writer has a recollection of being called to listen to the 
booming of a bittern, in a mild Spring evening, about the 
year 1804, in the mosses of Arlecdon. 

Bizzen, Bysen, N.E, ugly or ill-made. Ang.-Sax. bisen, example. 

Bizzom, N.E, a besom of birch twigs. 

Blaa, S.W. blow. A postman overtook a butcher, leading a fat 
calf by a cord tied round his own waist, and vainly en- 
deavouring to get the animal to cross a foot-bridge on the 


path. The butcher requested the postman to blow his 
horn when the calf was got into a favourable position, and 
on giving the word of command, to "Blaa, Jimmy, blaa!" 
a ]oud and sudden blast was given, and over went the calf 
into a deep pool, dragging the butcher along with it. On 
recovering his feet, he turned to the astonished postman, 
vociferating, " Thaww fooal, thaww ! that's far oor big a 
blatz for a fat cofe ! " 

Blab, G, to let out a secret. Teut. blabberen, to tell a secret. 

Blabber-skite, N.E, a vain talking fellow. 

Blackberries, C, black currants. 

Black-jack, G-, a leathern tankard. " There is preserved at 
Eden hall, and in constant use in the servants' hall on 
New Year's Day, a good specimen of the old leathern 
tankard, or jack; Black-jack, indeed, is its familiar appel- 
lation." — Rev. B. Porteus. 

Black-kites, C, Bummel-kites, N.E, bramble berries. 

Black-a-vyzt, C, dark complexioned. 

Bladder, C, Blether, N.E, idle talk. " A bletheran feull." 

Blake, C, pale yellow. "Blake as May butter." Dan. bleg. 
Sax. blaca, pale. 

Blare, C, Bledder, N.E, to roar violently. "He blares like a 
billy gwoat." Lower Sax. blaren, to bellow. 

Blash, C, to splash. 

Bleadd, G, blade. 

Bleakken, N.E, blacken. 

Bleeak, S.W, bleak. 

Bleamm, G, blame. 

Bleary, C, windy and showery. 

Bleatt, C, N.E, bashful, timid. 

Blebs, C. bubbles. 

Bleckal, N.E, Blackhall village, near Carlisle. 

Bledder, G, the bladder. 

Bleeze, G, blaze, a sudden flame. 

Bleeat, S.W, to bleat. Lan. 

Bleight, N.E, blight. Sco. 

Blenk, Blink, C, N.E, a gleam. "A blenk o sunshine." 

Blenrayset, C, Blennerhasset village. 


Bleudd, G, blood. 

Bleumm, N.E, bloom. 

Blinders, C, N.E, Blinkers, N.E, Winkers, Gloppers, S.W, eye 

shades, used on horses' bridles. 
Blin, N.E, blind. Sco. 
Bliss, N.E, bless. Sco. 
Blittert, C, torn by winds. 
Blocker, C, a butcher's pole-axe. 
Bo, C, Baa, S.W, N.E, ball. 

Boddam, G, bottom, low ground; a small valley or hollow. 
Boddamest, G, the lowest. 
Boddersom, G. troublesome. 
Boggle, C, S.W, Boogie, N.E, a ghost, something to be avoided. 

" Ye needent boggle at me — aa\ nit hurt ye." 
Bog onion, C, the Osmunda Begalis, or flowering fern. 
Boilies, C, food boiled for infants. 

Boilin, G, the whole quantity. " The heall boilin o' them." 
Boke, C, to hinder, disappoint ; a balk or beam. 
Boke, Bawk, C a ridge of land left for division of ownership. 

Ang.-Sax. balca, a ridge. 
Bokes, C, a hayloft, &c, of rough poles, and turf or branches 

in place of boards. " Eork that hay onta t' bokes." 
Bokin, G, the surname of Bacon. 
Boly, C, S.W, a horse having white legs and face. 
Bo-man, C, the name of an imaginary person, used to frighten 

Bond-sucken, G, some farms are bound by tenure to carry their 

corn to the manorial mill to be multured and ground, and 

are " bond-sucken " to that mill. 
Bonnily, G, prettily. 
Bonny, G, pretty. Sometimes ironically used in a contrary 

sense. " It 's a bonny consarn ! " 
Boo, C, N.E, Baww, S.W, to bow. 
Booak, S.W, a book. 
Booard, C, S.W, Beurd, N.E, board. 

Booin, Grundswathe, C, Muggert, E, Grunsel, N.E, the rag- 
wort — Senecio Jacobcea. 
Book, G, bulk. 


Bool, C, N.E, Booal, S.W, to bowl. "Bool in" — go boldly in. 
Boonce, C, Bawnce, S.W, Bunce, N.E, bounce. 
Boor, G-, to bore. 

Boot, G, bout, turn. " Let him hev a boot at threshin." 

Booze, C, a carouse. 

Boozy, C, elevated by liquor. 

Borran, C, a cairn, a large heap or extent of stones tumbled 

promiscuously one upon another. " A borran o steanns." 
Boss, Sop, C, Waze, N.E, a milkmaid's cushion for the head. 
Botch, (x, to mismanage. " Thoo 's meadd a botch on 't noo !" 
Bootsher, N.E, butcher. Sco. 
Bounder, C, boundary (used in old deeds). 
Bowster, G, bolster. 
Bowton, G, Bolton parish and village. 
BrafFam, C, Barryham, S.W, Breigham, N.E, a neck collar for 

a horse (Beruham, Barkhaam, Boucher). 
Braid, C, a cow is said to braid during the pains of parturition. 
Brak, G, broke. 

Brake, C, Breakk, S.W, Breeak, N.E, to beat. 
Brakesowt, C, Brakshy, N.E, inflammatory fever in sheep. 
Brandreth, C, an iron frame for supporting the baking plate or 

girdle at a proper distance above the fire ; a trivet. Teut. 

Brandied, C, Brannit, N.E, brindled. 
Brang, C, S.W, Brong, N.E, brought. "An' Kursty brong his 

lug a whang." — Anderson. 
Brank, C, to hold the head affectedly and proudly. " Brankan 

like a steg swan." 
Bran new, G, never having been used. 
Brant, C, S.W, Brent, N.E, steep. "Skiddaw's a gay brant 

fell." Dan. brat. Scand. brant. 
Branton, G, Brampton. 
Brash, C, rash, headlong. "He's a brashan body, an runs 

heed an neck still." 
Brast, Brust, Brist, G, burst. "That with the straint his 

wesand nigh he brast:' — Spenser's F. Q. 
Brashy, C, weak, delicate. 


Brass, G, copper money, riches. 

Brass, G, impudence, assurance. " He 's plenty o' brass in his 

Brat, C, a coarse apron, a contemptuous term for a child. Br. 
" A bratte to walken in a daylight." Ch. 

Brattle, G-, a loud rattle. 

Brave, N.E, superior, fine. 

Bravely, C, N.E, quite well. " Ize bravely, hoo's tou?" 

Bray, G, to beat. " Aa\ gi' thee a brayin." Sax. bracan. 

Brayin steann, C, N.E, a rounded stone used for pounding 
sandstone to sand floors with. 

Brayzent, C, brazen, impudent, with excess of assurance. 

Brazzle, C, to press into a crowd, &c. 

Brazzled, or Brizled, or Brusled pez, N E, scorched pease, 
scrambled for by boys. A glorious feast for the young- 
sters ! A sly urchin steals a sheaf of pease : notice of the 
fact spreads quicker than the progress of the w Fiery Cross " 
in old times, and the village green is soon peopled by 
joyous faces. The sheaf is readily in a blaze, and this 
subsided, down go the boys on hands and knees amongst 
the yet hot ashes, seeking as for hidden treasure — the 
pease, some still green, some only scorched, others charred 
to a cinder, but all excellent to the anxious juveniles, who 
rise from the scramble with hands and faces black as 

Breadd, S.W, Braid, N.E, broad. 

Bread sticks, N.E, a wooden frame for drying bread cakes 
before the fire. 

Breear, G, briar. " Now in the crop, and now down in the 
breres." Ch. 

Breed, C, N.E, Breead, S.W, bread. 

Breekin, C, the space behind the udder of a sheep. 

Breeks, G, breeches. 

Breest, Brist, C, N.E, Breeast, S.W, breast. 

Breet, C, S.W, Breeght, N.E, bright. 

Breeth, C, S.W, Braith, N.E, breath. 

Brek, C, to break ; fun, practical joke. " Sec breks !" 


Breme, N.E, to froth. " It bremes ower," it froths over the brim. ' 

Brenth, G, breadth. 

Breukt, C, a white sheep having the belly and legs black is a 
breukt sheep in colour. 

Breumm, G, broom. 

Breuzz, Briz, C, Breez, N.E, bruise. 

Bridewain,* Bidden weddin, G, a wedding custom, now obso- 
lete, at which subscriptions were made for the newly- 
married pair, and sports held for the amusement of all. 

Brig, G-, bridge. 

Brissle up, G-, to erect the bristles, to grow angry. 

Broatch, G, a wooden pin to wind yarn upon. 

Brock feasst, C, snip-faced, like a badger. Dan. brok. 

Brog, Brob, C, a twig, a small branch or straw worn in the hat- 
band by unengaged servants on the hiring day. " I' Carel 
I wandert wi' a strea i' my mouth," — Anderson. 

Brog out, G, to mark out by sticking up branches. 

Brok, Brokken, G, broken, curdled. 

Broan, C, S.W, Braan, N.E, a boar. 

Broo, C, Breaa, S.W, Breea, N.E, brow. " Oor beck 's broo 
full to-day." 

Broon leemers, C, nuts browned with ripeness, and ready to 
drop out of the husks. 

Brossan, C, S.W, Brussan, Brust, N.E, burst. 

Brossan kern, G, this term is agplied in ridicule when the har- 
vest-home is held prematurely. 

Brot, C, refuse corn, odds and ends. 

Brot out, C, corn is said to brot out when the grain is shed 
from over ripeness. 

* The following is copied from a local paper of 1786, and is part of an 
advertisement relating to a Bridewain. " Notice is hereby given, that the 
marriage of Isaac Pearson with Frances Atkinson will he solemnized in due 
form in the parish church of Lamplugh, in Cumberland, on Tuesday next, the 
30th May, 1786 ; immediately after which the bride and bridegroom, with their 
attendants, will proceed to Lanefoot, in the said parish, where the nuptials 
will be celebrated by a variety of entertainments." And, doubtless, a hand- 
some collection would find its way, according to custom, into the napkin- 
covered pewter-dish upon the bride's lap. 


I Brugh, N.E, a halo round the sun or moon. " A far-off brugh 
tells of a near-hand storm." 

I Browse, C, friable, mellow. - 

Brully, C, Brulliment, N.E, broil, disturbance. 

Brumstan, C, Brunstan, N.E, brimstone. 

Brunt, G, burnt. 

Buckle, C, order, condition, health. " He 's i' girt buckle to-day." 

Buckle, C, S.W, to marry, fasten upon, attack. 

Buckle beggar, N.E, the Gretna Green parson.* 

Buck up, 0, to subscribe, to help or assist, to advance. " Buck 
up till her, lad." 

Buff, G, nakedness. " Stript into buff." 

Bule, C, the bow cf a basket, or corfe, or pan. See Yetlin. 

Bull grips, G, iron claspers for leading bulls by the nose. 

Bullister, N.E, the fruit of the bullace tree, Prunus institia. 

Bull ring, G, the ring to which bulls were secured previous to 
being baited or slaughtered, as at Penrith, Keswick, &c. ; 
also a place of public challenge. To "shakt' bull ring" 
was, some fifty years ago, to challenge the village, or town, 
or fairstead, to produce a champion to fight the " shakker" : 
similar to the Irishman dragging his coat through the fair 
for another to tread upon, 

Bullstang, C, the dragon fly — Libellalce. 

Bull toppins, C, Bull feasses, S.W, Bull fronts, N.E, tufts of 
the aira coespitosa, a very coarse grass. 

Bullyrag, Ballyrag, G, to scold, to reproach, to rally contemp- 

Bultree, C, Burtree, S.W, Boretree, N.E, the elder — Sambucus 

Bum, G, to be busy. " Bumman about like a bee in a bottle." 

Bumly, C, the humble bee — Bomba. Scand. bumla, to buzz. 

Bummel, C, to bungle, blunder. 

Bump, C, a blow, a hump. 

Bumper, G, a large one. 

Bunch berry, N.E, the fruit of the stone bramble — rubus 

* His office became extinct by Act of Parliament in 1857. 


Bund, C, S.W, Bun, N.E, bound. 

Bunnels, C, Bullens, Spools, N.E, dry stems of the Jcesh or cow I 

parsnip, or of hemp, used for candle-lighters.- 
Burd, C, bird. 

Burn t' beck, G, having taken no fish. 
Burnt his fingers, G, applied to persons having failed in some 

object, or having been over-reached. 
Burnywind, N.E, burn the wind, the blacksmith. Sco. 
Bur, C, Brugh, N.E, a wheel stopper, a halo round the sun or 

moon. "We'll hev change seunn, theer a bur aboot 

Burr, 0, a sudden hurry. " He went off wid a burr." 
Buryin t' ould wife, C, the treat by an apprentice on attaining 

his freedom. 
Busk (nearly obsolete), C, Buss, N.E, bush. Teut. busch. 
Butter bwoat, C, a small tureen with a handle at one end and a 

spout at the other. 
Butter fmgert, G, having a careless habit of allowing things to 

drop through the hands. 
Butter kits, C, square boxes used for conveying butter to 

market in a wallet on horseback. 
Butter shag, C, bread and butter spread with the thumb, 

sometimes called a thumb shag. 
Butter sops, C, N.E, wheat or oat bread steeped in melted 

butter and sugar. 
But and ben, N.E, the outer and inner rooms of the Border 

farm houses. Sco. 
Butts, G, short ridges of uneven length. 
Butty, C, bulky at the butt or lower end. 
But-welt, C, to turn the butt ends of corn sheaves to the wind 

to dry. 
Buzzert, C, the buzzard or bustard ; a timid person. " She 's a 

fair buzzert at' neets." 
Bwoat, G, boat. 
Bwoast, C, N.E, boast. 
Bwol, C, Bothel village. 
Bwore, C, Boor, S.W, to bore with a gimlet, &c. 


Bworn, G, born to the world, carried, borne. 

Bwoy, N.E, boy. 

Bwozom, N.E, bosom. Sco. 

Bygeann G, bygone. "Let bygeanns be bygeanns" — let what 

is past be forgotten. 
Bysepel, Byseful, G, full of vice, mischievous. 


Caant, C, Caat, S.W, Canna, N.E, cannot. 

Caarel, C, Cairl, N,E, Carlisle. 

Cabbish, G, cabbage. 

Cabbish-runt, C, Castick, N.E, a cabbage stalk, and N.E, the 

inside of it. 
Cad, C, S.W, to mat or felt together. " Her hair was caddit 

till it cud nivver be cwomt mair." 
Cadger, N.E, a retailer of smallwares having a cart; a hard 

biscuit. " A Peet-cadger." — Anderson. 
Caff, G. chaff. 
Caird, N.E, card. Sco. 
Calavine, N.E, a blacklead pencil. 
Caller, N.E, fresh, cool. Sco. 

Campers, G, persons sleeping in tents or camps, vagrants. 
Cample, C, to reply pertly to a superior. 
Cammarel, C, the heel or hock joint of animals, a wooden 

stretcher used for suspending carcases upon. 
Cannel, G, candle. 
Cannel-bark, C, a small box, originally made of bark, and used 

for holding candles, now made of tin or wood. 
Cankert, G, ill-conditioned, rusted. 
Canny, Conny, G, pretty, nice, suitable, cautious, gentle. " Be 

canny, 1 ' or cautious. 
Canny bit, G, a term of comparison ; as " a canny bit better,'' 

a " canny bit warse." 
Canny come off, C, a ludicrous and unexpected turn of affairs. 
Canty, G, merry, lively, cheerful. 
Capper, G, one who excels. 



Cappers, G, something difficult. " Aa\ set thee thy cappers/' 

Caps cut-lugs,* C, anything unexpectedly puzzling or droll. 

Capt, G, overcome, puzzled. " He 's fairly capt" 

Caper corner-way, C, diagonally. 

Car-clout nails, C, hroad headed nails, formerly in use for I 

securing the tire of wheels. 
Car stangs, C, Car limmers, S.W, cart shafts. 
Car-reet, C, Car-reeght, N.E, cartwright. 
Car-end-board, Coopboard, C, Car-scut, S.W, Heckboard, N.E, 

the end-board of a cart. 
Car-house, C, Carras, N.E, a house to shelter carts in. 
Car-rack, G, a deep cart-rut or track. 
Carl, N.E, a coarse, unmannerly fellow. 
Carran, Gr, carrion. 
Carry, C, the movement or direction of the clouds. " It '11 be 

fair to-day, because t' carry 's frae t' west." 
Carry on the war ! C, continue the fun. 
Cassel, Gr, castle. 
Castick, N.E, cabbage stalk. 

Cat-lowp, C, in near proximity. " Within a cat-lowp." 
Catscalp, Catscope, C, clay ironstone in nodules. 
Cat-wittit, C, silly and conceited. 
'Cause, G, because. 
Cawm, G, calm. 
Cawwshin, C, caution. 
Cay shin, G, occasion. 
Ceapp, G, cape. 
Ceestern, C, cistern. 
Cennel,* C, cannel coal. 
Cest,* G, cast. 
Cessen,* G, and Cassen, N.E, casten, overturned. " Bob' meer 

was kessen in a gutter." 
Ceukk, G, cook. 
Ceull, G, cool 

Chafts, G, jaws. Scand. kiaftr, the jaw. 

Chalks, C, marks. " Better by chalks." Wagers are sometimes 
* Who or what was cut-lugs? + C hard. 


made to determine who can reach farthest or highest, and 
there make a chalk mark. 

Chang, C, the cry of a pack of hounds, the conversation of 

Chap, G-, a customer, a general term for man. " What sek a 
chap hes she leet on ? " 

Chats, C, Skybels, N.E, seedling ash-plants, small branches of 
oak not worth the cost of peeling ; stripling boys. 

Chattert, C, shattered. " Chattert into splinters." 

Chatter- wallet, C, a talkative child. 

Cha-v?aicw, C, abundance of silly talk. 

Cheeap, S.W, cheap. Lan. 

Cheeat, S.W, cheat. Lan. 

Cheek by jowl, C, S.W, close together, very sociable. 

Cheely, C, Cheel, N.E, a droll young fellow. 

Cheeny, G-, china ware. 

Cheg, C, to chew without dividing, to champ with the teeth. 

Chemmerly, C, N.E, chammerly, S.W, chamber-lye, stale urine. 

Chennel, G-, channel. 

Cheppel Sundays, C, Sundays set apart annually in August and 
September at Bassenthwaite, Thorn thwaite, Newlands, &c, 
when people assemble from a distance, attend divine ser- 
vice, dine with their friends, and then adjourn to the 
inns to make merry. 

Chern, S.W, churn. 

Cherts o' grass, C, the first blades of grass in Spring. 

Chess, C, Chass, S.W, Cheass, N.E, chase. 

Chibies, N.E, onions. 

Chiggle, C, to cut wood unskilfully. 

Chimlay, G, chimney. 

Chip, C, to trip — a term in wrestling. 

Chirrup, C, chirp, the noisy chatter of incipient inebriety. 

Chist, East, G', chest. 

Chit, C, the note used in calling a cat. 

Chitterwaww, C, the amorous language of cats. 

Chitty, C, the wren. 

Chock, C, to wedge or stop. 


Chock full, C, full to the top. 

Chooaz, S.W, choose. Lan. 

Ghoop, Shoop, C, the fruit of the wild rose. 

Choppers, S.W, snuffers. " Chop that cannel, lad." 

Chowe, C, chew. 

Chowl, C, the fleshy part of the cheek. 

Christmas shaff, C, the sheaf given to each cow and horse on 

Christmas morning. 
Chuckle-head, C, a stupid person. 
Chufty, C, a person having fat cheeks, chuhby. 
Chump, C, the first cry of a hound on scenting game. "We 

tried o't foorneunn, an' niver had a chump." 
Chuns, N.E, the sprouts of the potatoe. 
Chunter, C, to reply angrily, and weeping. 
Chur, C, the subdued growl of the dog, and the prolonged 

note of the night-jar. 
Churchwarner, C, Kirkmaister, S.W, Kirkwarden, N.E, church- 
Churry, G, cherry. 
Chwose, C, chose. 
Clag, Gr, to stick to. Dan. klceg. 
Claggy, Gr, clammy, adhesive. 
Clam, C, did climb. " He clam oot at t' fell heed like a crow 

Clam up, C, to satiate, to cloy. Sullivan says, to starve — from 

Dao. klemme, to pinch. 
Clammer, Clavver, C, to climb. 
Clammers, S.W, a yoke for the neck of a cow, to prevent her 

leaping hedges. 
Clammersom, C, clamorous. 

Clamper, Clonter, C, to make a clattering noise with the feet. 
Clap, C, to pat gently. 

Clap-breed, C, cakes beat or clapped out with the hands. 
Clap, C, to squat as a hare does. 
Clap on, C, to put on a lid or a hat, &c. 

" Seek V aul gray yad, clap on the pad, 
She 's deun lyle wark t' year." — Anderson, 


Clart, C, adhesive dirt, anything clammy ; a scrap. " He still 

leaves a clart on his plate." 
Clash, C, to abuse, to weary, to throw or strike furiously ; 

gossip. G-er. klatsche, a gossip. 
Clashy, C, S.W, showery. " Clashy weather ! " 
Clat, C, Clash, N.E, news, a female newsmonger. 
Clavver, to climb. Dan. klavre. 
Clavver grass, C, goose grass— Galium aparine. 
Clay daubin, C, Clay biggin, N.E, a house built of clay. 
Clean heel't, G-, active with the feet. 
Cleath, G, cloth. 

Cleadd, C, Cleed, Clethe, N.E, to clothe. 
Cleazz, C, Cleeaz, S.W, clothes. 
Cleckin, G, a shuttlecock. " As leet as a cleckin ! " 
Cled, G, clad, clothed. 
Cled score, N.E, twenty-one to the score. 
Cleean, S.W, clean. Lan. 
Cleet, C, a cross rib in carpentry, a batten. 
Cleets, Fwoalfeet, G, the colt's foot — Tussilago farfara. (The 

young leaf resembles the foot of a foal in outline.) 
Cleg, C, the sting fly — chrysops. To "stick like a cleg" is a 

common expression for a close adhesion. 
Cleps, C, Weedsticks, N.E, tongs for pulling up weeds. 
Cleugh, N.E, a ravine or cleft. (Clough, a kind of breach 

downe along the side of a hill. — Verstegan.) 
Cleuh, C, Cleea, S.W, Cleutt, N.E, claw, hoof. Dan. klov. 
Chart, C, the lungs adhering to the ribs of cattle, consumptive. 
Click, C, S.W, Cleek, N.E, to snatch ; a steep part of a road. 

" It 's a sharp click up W^orkiton Ho' brow." 
Clink, G, a blow, a jingling sound. 
Clippin, G, the annual sheep shearing. 
Clipt an' heelt, G, in proper trim, like a game cock prepared to 

Clivver, N.E, clever. 

Clock hen, G, a hen desirous of incubation. 
Clock lownd, C. very still. See " Lownd." 
Clogs, G, wooden soled shoes plated with iron. 


Clog wheels, C, cart wheels of thick plank, and without spokes. 

In common use in the eighteenth century. 
Clonk, C, a sounding blow. " Hit him a clonk ower t' heed." 
Cloot, C, N.E, a blow, a patch, a rag. 
Clot, C, N.E, a clod; to throw clods, &c. "They clottit ' 

lasses wid apples, an had sek fun ! " 
Clot bur, N.E, the burdock — Arctium Lappa. 
Clotch, C, to shake roughly. 
Clotchin, C, Cleekin, Cleckin, N.E, a brood of chickens, &c 

or the set of eggs from which the brood is produced. 
Clot-heed, G, a stupid person. 

Clowe, C, S.W, to scratch, to beat. " She gave him a clowin." 
Clowk, C, to snatch. 
Cludder, C, to crowd together, cluster. 
Clum, C, Clom, S.W, having climbed. 
Clunch, C, a heavy, stupid person or animal. 
Clwose, G, sultry, close. 
Clwoze, C, Clooaz, S.W, close, an in closure. 
Coald, C, Caald, S.W, Caald, Col, N.E, cold. "It's caald an 

raa to-day" — S.W. " It 's parlish coald to-day." " Ey, fit 

to skin a teadd." — C. 
Coald pye, C, Penny pye, N.E, a fall on the ice. 
Co', C, Caa, S.W, N.E, call, scold, proclaim. "P th' kurkgarth 

the dark co't a seall." — Anderson. 
Co' i' the court, N.E. The customary tenants are required to 

answer to their names when called in the manorial court ; 

and this is termed having a " co' i' the court," and implies 

being a yeoman, or his representative. 
Co', Cuh, C, come. " He co' towert me, and sed cuh narder." 
Co avert, Caavert, N.E, Calvert (surname). 
Cob, G, to kick, to beat. 
Cobble steann, G, a boulder stone. " With staves or with 

clubs, or els with coble stones." — Gammer Gurton's Needle. 
Cock-a-lilty, C, in a merry mood. 
Cockloft, C, the top garret. 

Cockly, C, N.E, Cockelty, S.W, unsteady, on a precarious foun- 



Cocker, G, a cockfighter. 

Cockan, G, cockflghting. 

Cocks wunters, G, a mode of swearing in fun. 

Coddle, G, to embrace with the arms. 

Coderbrig, G, Calderbridge. 

Cofe, G, calf. 

Cofe lye, C, the womb of the cow. 

Cofe lickt, C ; when the human hair grows perversely, it is 

said to be calf- licked. The hair of a calf or cow remains 

for some time in the direction of the last licking by the 

animal's tongue. 
Coff, C, Cowgh, N.E, cough. 

Cokers, C, Caakers, S.W, N.E, calkers, irons for clog bottoms. 
Collogue, C, to plot, to confederate. 
Collop Monday, C, the day after Shrove Sunday, when collops 

are usually prepared for dinner. 
Colrake, G. See Scrapple. 
Com, C, S.W, Cam, N.E, came. 
Come ower, G, to hit. " Tom com ower his lug." 
Con, C, S.W, a squirrel's nest, 
Consate, G, conceit. 
Coo, C, N.E, Caww, S.W, cow. 

Coo, C, Cowe, S.W, to intimidate, to place in subjection. 
Cooas, C, Cawwas, S.W, cowhouse. 

Coo clap, C, the firm dung of the cow as dropped in the field. 
Coo swat, C, the semi-fluid dung of the cow, as dropped in 

the field. 
Coo tee, G, cow tie, a rope to fasten the hind legs of a kicking 

cow during the operation of milking. 
Coont, C, N.W, Cavrnt, S.W, count, account. 
Coont nought on, C, N.E, esteem not. "I coont nought o' 

sek wark." 
Coor, C, Cawwer, S.W, to cower, to crouch. 
Cooter, C, N.E, coulter. 
Coop, C, Cowp, S.W, a small fellside cart. 
Cop, C, the top ; a peak, a conical hill ; as Coulderton cop, 

Kinniside cop, &c. Sax. coppe. 


Copt, C, pert, set up. 

Copy steull, C, a child's stool. 

Corby, N.E, the carrion crow. 

Corker, C, something very appropriate. " That is a corker!" 

Corlak, C, Cowrak, S.W, coalrake, See Scrapple, 

Corp, C, S.W, to die ; N.E, corpse. Ir. corp, the dead body. 

Cot, G, a hut. Norw. hot. 

Cot, S.W, to wait on a sick person, to saunter about home. 

" He cots on abawt heamm." See Teutt. 
Cotter, C, to entangle, to mat together. " It was cottert like an 

auld wig." 
Country side, G, neighbourhood. " Oor country side lads 

ageann o' In gland ! " 
Cower, G, to recover. 
Cowl, S.W, to rake together. 
Cowk, C, Gowk, N.E, the core. 
Cowey, Cow't cow, C, Doddy, N.E, Polly, S.W, a cow without 

Cowdy, C, better fed than taught, in high spirits. 
Cowp, C, N.E, Swap, S.W, to exchange. Norw. kaupa, to 

purchase. (" Ceapman. For this we now say Chapman, 

which is as much as to say a Merchant, or Copeman." — 

Cowp, N.E, to overturn. 
Cowp, S.W, a cart. 
Cowpress, C, the fulcrum. 
Cowshin, C, Cawwshin, S.W, caution. 
Cowt, G, a colt, a petted child. 

Cow't dyke, C, an earthen fence devoid of growing wood. 
Cow't lword, C, pudding made of oatmeal and lumps of suet. 
Coyds, C, quoits. Dan. coete. 
Graa teazz, N.E, the early purple Orchis mascula. 
Crack, G, a conversation, conference, a challenge or boast, to 

do quickly. " Come, Nichol, lad, give us thy crack." — 

Crag, C, the face or countenance. " He hung a lang crag when 

t' news com." This is a word of the mountain vales. 


Cracker, C, a small hard biscuit. 

Crackets, C, crickets. A superstitious idea exists that prosperity 
comes and goes with crickets. 

Crammel, C, to walk as if the feet were sore. 

Crammelly, C, tottery, unsteady. 

Cranch, C, Crunch, N.E, to crush with the teeth. Round sand 
on the floor cranches under the feet. 

Cranky sark, C, N.E, see Buffet sark. 

Crater, Creeter, C, Crater, N.E, Creeater, S.W, creature. 

Crawwl, C, N.E, Craal, S.W, crawl. 

Creapp, Crop, C, Crap, Creupp, N.E, crept. 

Creavv, C, to crave. 

Creddle, G-, a cradle. 

Cree, G, to crush, to break into fragments. 

Creean trough, G; old stone troughs of a circular or semi- 
globular form may still be found about ancient farm 
houses, which have been used in creeing or crushing 
barley for making bread of. 

Creel, C, an ancient horse package, a wicker basket. Scand. 
krila, to plait. 

Creukk, C, Creeak, S.W, N.E, crook. 

Creunn, C, N.E, Creean, S.W, the subdued roar of the bull. 

Crewd, C, S.W, crowd. 

Creyk, N.E, a creek. Sco. 

Crib, Crub, Kerb, C, the curb of a bridle. 

Crinkelty crankelty, C, very crooked, zigzag. " 0' ins an' oots." 

Cro, C, Craa, S.W, N.E, crow. 

Crobbek, C, Crovvik, S.W, Cravvik, N.E, a disease of the stomach 
in cattle, occasioned by waot of change of pasture. 

Crobs, Crob-lambs, C, S.W, Shots, Shot-lambs, N.E, the worst 
of the flock. 

Crock, Crock-yowe, C, S.W, an old ewe. To crock, to grow feeble 
or decrepid with age. 

Croft, G, a field near the house, commonly level and of good 
quality. In 1634, Verstegan says, " A croft we esteem 
some little plot of ground, and both the name and the 
thing are yet in ordinary knowledc^ ." 


Croft land, G, a range of fields near the house, of equally good 

quality with the croft. 
Croful, C; a very lean person is said to have not a "croful"* I 

of flesh on him. 
Crones, Mossberries, C, Creanns, N.E, cranberries. 
Croodle, C, to crouch. 

Croon, C, N.E, Crawwn, S.W, crown, the top of the head. 
Croopin, C, Crippin, S.W, Crippel, N.E, a crupper. 
Croose, C, N.E, haughty, set up, elated. 
Crop, C, the stomach. 
Cropsick, C, disordered in the stomach. 
Crottles, C, N.E, small lumps. 

Crottelly, C, N.E, so friable as to be liable to fall to pieces. 
Crowdy, G, oatmeal mixed with the fat of broth, a horse mess. 
Crowk, C, to croak. " The guts crowk " when the bowels make 

a rumbling noise. 
Crowkins, C, greaves from melted fat. 
Crowl, Crawwl, C, Crawwl, S.W, to crawl. 
Crub, C, a crib. 

Crub, C, N.E, Kerb, S.W, to curb, restrain. 
Crud, G, curd. 
Crummy, Crumhorned, G, a cow having horns turned towards 

the eyes. 
Crump, C, brittle, crumbling, the sound of horses' teeth when 

Crusty, C, ill-tempered. 
Cry, N.E, to call. " Cry the lad back." 
Cubbert, G, cupboard. 
Cuckoo bread and cheese, C, the leaves and flowers of the wood 

sorrel — Oxalis Acetosella. 
Cuckoo spit, Teadd spit, C, frothy matter seen on plants in early 

summer — the breeding places of the Tettigonia, a species 

of beetle. 
Cuddent, G, could not. 
Cuddy, G, Cuthbert ; an ass. 
Cue, C, trim, temper. " He 's i' girt cue to- day." 

* Possibly not so much as would satiate a carrion crow. 


Cuff, C, Cluff, N.E, Clawte, S.W, a blow. 

Curat, Cun, C, has or is come. " Peggy 's cun heamm !" 

Cum bye, C, reprisal. "It '1 cum bye am" — It will visit him 

Cumman, G, coming. 

Cummerlan, G-, Cumberland. " Canny Cummerlan !" 
Cummt milk, C, milk curdled with rennet, and seasoned with 

sugar and spices — a very pleasant dish. 
Cum what cum may, C, let the consequence be what it may. 
Cum yer ways in, G, come in and welcome. "Yer ways" is 

now in the way of being dropped, as superfluous. 
Cundeth, Cundert, G-, conduit or culvert. 
Cup doon, C. It was formerly the custom to turn the cup 

down, or place the spoon across it, when a person had 

done tea. 
Curly kue, G, a flourish in writing, &c. 
Curly powe, G, a curled poll or head of hair. " Dainty Davy 

curly powe." — Old Song. 
Curbison, C, Kerbison, S.W, Cuthbertson. 
Curossaty, G, curiosity. 

Currock, N.E, a heap of stones used as a landmark, &c. 
Cursen, Kersen, G, christen. 
Cursenmas, Cursmas, Kersenmas, G, Christmas. "AtChris- 

tenmas mery may ye dance." — Chaucer. 
Cursnin, Kersnin, G, christening. 
Curtshy, N.E, curtsy. 
Cursty, Kersty, Kit, G, Christopher. 
Cush ! Scush ! C, an exclamation of wonder, a kind of oath, a 

call note for cattle. 
Custert, G, custard. 

Cuts, G, pieces of straw, &c, used in drawing lots. 
Cute, G, acute, clever. 
Cutten, G, has been cut. 
Cutter, G, to whisper, to talk softly. " V th' pantry the sweet- 

hearters cutter't queyte soft." — Anderson. 
Cuttery coo, C, the note of the male pigeon, secret conversa- 


Cutty, N.E, short. See Scutty. 

Cuz, C, comes. " He cuz ower to see us noo an than." 

Cuze, C, accuse. 

Cwoach, G, coach. 

Cwoam, C, S.W, Keamm, N.E, comb. 

Cwoat, G, coat. 

Cwolly, C, N.E, the shepherd's dog. 

Cwols, G, coals. 

Cwoorse, C, N.E, Cawrse, S.W, coarse, course. 

Cword, G, cord. 

Cworn, C, N.E, Corn, S.W, corn. 

Cworncreakk, C, the corncrake or landrail. 

Cworn later, C, a person begging for corn. It was the custom, 
till lately, for a poor man beginning the world on a small 
farm, to go round among his neighbours soliciting for 
seed corn, when one or two gallons would be given to him 
at nearly every farm house. 

Cwoort, C, N.E, Cawrt, S.W, court. 

Coze house, C, the corps house. 


Daab, G, daub, bedaub. 

Daason, S.W, Dawson. Lan. 

Dadder, C, S.W, Didder, Dodder, N.E, to shiver, to tremble. 

Dadder grass, C, Dotherin grass, N.E, quaking grass — Briza 

Daddle, G, to walk or work slowly, to trifle ; the hand. 
Daffan, G, joking, bantering. 
Daft, C, without sense. " He 's nobbet rayder daftish, aa 

think." " Ey, as daft as a besom." 
Daft, G, silly, wanton. " He 's fairly daft about her." 
Daffy-doon-dilly, C, the daffodil. 
Daggy, N.E, wet and misty weather. 
Dander, G, passion, excitement. " His dander's up." 
Dander, N.E, to hobble, to wander. 
Dang, N.E, to push. " Dang am for a feull ! aa\ ding am ower, 

and efter he 's dung ower aa\ dang his silly heed off." 


Dang ! C, a kind of oath. 

Dantle, C, to dandle. 

Dark, G, to lurk, to listen in the background. 

Darkan, G, lurking, listening without seeming to attend. 

Darknin, G, evening twilight. 

Darr, Darrat, Darr zonn ! C, oaths. 

Darrak, C, Dark, S.W, Darg, N.E, day's work. Dan. dyrke, to till. 

Daarrant, C, Darna, N.E, dare not. 

Darter, C, a quick person. 

Darth, C, scarcity, dearth. 

Dass, N.E, a cutting in a haystack. 

Dawd, Dode, C, daub, dot ; a lump or rough quantity. " Lumps 

o' puddin an dawds o' panceakk." 
Day-leetnin, G, morning twilight, daybreak. 
Dayzt, C, Deazt, S.W, pasty, half baked. 
Daysent, S.W, decent. 
Dea, Deuh, C, Du, S.W, Dee, Du, N.E, do. 
Deall, C, S.W, dale, vale. 
Deall meall, Dale mail, C, a tribute paid by the customary 

tenants of the manor of Ennerdale for permission to put 

sheep and cattle on the forest. 
Deamm, N.E, dame, the wife. 
Dee, G, die. 
Deeal, S.W, deal. 

Deean, C. Duan, S.W, N.E, doing. 
Deed, C, N.E, Deead, S.W, dead. 
Deed tongue, C, water hemlock — JEnanthe crocata. 
Deavvy, G, David. 

Deddy, C, Dady, Dade, N.E, Daddy, S.W, dada 3 father. 
Deed-drunk, C, when a man can "nowder gang, ner stand, ner 

hod by t' girse." 
Deef, C, N.E, Deeaf, S.W, deaf. 
Deel bin, N.E, a mode of swearing. 
Deepness, C, depth. 
Deer, C, Duer, S.W, door. 
Deet, C, Deeht, N.E, to winnow or dress corn. 
Deetin death, C, the cloth used to dress corn upon. 


Deetin hill, C, the hill used to dress corn upon by throwing the 
corn up in the wind. Ancient barns have opposite doors, 
so that corn could be cleared of chaff in the draught be- 
tween the doors, before winnowing machines came into use. 

Deeth, C, N.E, Deeath, S.W, death. 

Deeve, C, N.E, Deeav, S.W, to deafen or stun with noise. 

Deft, C, quiet, silent, N.E, handy. 

Deg, C, Dag, N.E, to ooze, to flow slowly, like a moist ulcer or 
" deggan sare." 

Densh, C, squeamish, delicate. 

Dess, C, to adorn, to build up as applied to making cocks of 
hay, &c. Scand. des, a pile or heap. 

Despart, C, Dispart, N.E, desperate. 

Deunn, N.E, done. 

Devarshin, G, diversion. 

Dewe, S.W, do, dew ; pronounced, day-oo, quickly. Lan. 

Deylt, N.E, moped, spiritless ; faculties impaired. 

Dezarve, G, deserve. 

Dibble, C, to plant seed. Sometimes applied to the burying of 
a corpse. 

Dickadee, Willylilt, C, the sandpiper — Tringa alpina. 

Difficulter, C, more difficult. 

Dikey, C, the hedge-sparrow — Accentor modularis. 

Dillicate, N.E, delicate. 

Din, N.E, dun colour. Sco. 

Ding ! C, a kind of oath. 

Ding drive, C, N.E, full drive, full speed. 

Dish-feasst, hollow-faced, feminine. 

Disjest, C, digest. 

Disnan, C, distancing. 

Divval, C, Deel, Deeval, N.E, devil, 

Diz, N.E, does. 

Dizzen, N.E., dozen. 

Dyke, C, S.W, Deyke, N.E, a hedge. Ang.-Sax. die, 

Dockin, G, the dock plant. 

Dod, G, a round topped fell — generally an offshoot from a 
larger or higher mountain. 


Doddy, N.E, a cow without horns. See Cowey. 

Doe-belly't, G, a bay or brown horse having flanks and belly of 

a fawn colour. 
Doff, C, to do off, to undress. 
Dog daisy, C, the daisy — Bellis perennis. 
Dog dyke, C, a boundary without a fence, where dogs are used 

to hound back trespassers. 
Doggery, C, dull, slow. " A doggery market." 
Dog trail, G, a hound race. 
Don, G, to do on, to dress. 
Donky weather, C, mist and light rain. "It's a donky day, 

Tom." "Ey, rayder slattery." "Yesterday was varra 

siashy." " Ey, parlish soft." 
Donnat, G, devil, an unruly person. " She 's that at t' donnat." 
Doo, C, Du, S.W, a feast or merrymaking; something exciting. 

" We 'd a grand doo tudder neet." 
Dooer, C, Deer, Deur, S.W, N.E, door. 
Dook, G, to bathe, to dive. Dan. dukke, to dip. 
Doon, C, N.E, Dawne, S.W, down. 
Doon fo', C, the low parts around mountains where sheep 

retire for shelter in bad weather. 
Doont, Diwent, C, Dunnot, Dooat, S.W, Deent, Dinnot, Downot, 

Dinna, N.E, do not. 
Doonbank, C, N.E, downwards. 
Doon-cum, C, N.E, a fall in price or station. 
Doon at mooth, Doon 't, C, dejected, dispirited, prostrated. 
Doon thump, C, honest, truthful. 
Doose, C, N.E, a slap. " Aal doose thy chops." 
Doose, C, N.E, jolly, hospitable, open-handed, having a good 

Doot, C, N.E, Dawte, S.W, doubt. 
Dootsom, C, N.E, doubtful. 
Dope, Dopy, C, a simpleton. 
Do- stan, G, Dalston village. 
Dote, C, dalt, a specified share in an open field, &c, as a peat dote, 

a bracken dote, a hay dote, a tangle dote on the sea-shore; 

and also of a fence or road, as a dyke dote, a road dote. 


Dote, G, Jonathan. 

Bo thee, C, a command. "Do thee gang to wark." 

Dottle, N.E, the small portion of tobacco remaining unsmoked 

in the pipe. 
Dowe, C, useful or good. Dan. due, to be of value. 
Dowp, C, a bay in a lake. 
Dowter, G, daughter. 
Dowy, N.E, downhearted. 

Dozent, N.E, spiritless and-impotent; stupified. 
Dozzle, C, a lump. A farmer, offering butter in the market for 

sale, being afraid of having it seized by the market officer 

for irregular weight, quickly squeezed the pounds into one 

another, and said — " Aa divvent sell punds ; mine 's o' 

lumps an dozzles." 
Drabble, C, draggle, to make wet and dirty. 
Draff, G, brewers' grains. Norw. draf, pigs' food. 
Draft sheep, C, S.W, Tops, N.E, a selection of the best annually. 
Drakt, N.E, wet. 
Draw, C, Draa, S.W, to overtake. " He 's off; bit, Jim, al seunn 

draw am." 
Dreakk, G, a drake. 
Dree, G, slow, lasting, lengthy. " It 's a dree rwoad at niver 

hez a turn." 
Dreeara, S.W, dream. 

Dreen, Dreann, C, the gratified note of the cow during milking. 
Dreed, C, N.E, Dreead, S.W, dread. " He niver dreedit sec a 

Dreesom, N.E, tiresome, lengthy. 
Dreyve, N.E, drive. Sco. 
Dreuvt, C, Dreeavt, S.W, Draykt, Dreakt, N.E, saturated with 

water. The term is commonly applied to slacked lime 

when very wet. 
Drip, " white as drip,'" C, anything brilliantly white. 
Driss, C, Druss, N.E, dress. 

Driss butter, C, to make butter into cakes and pounds. 
Drisser, G, the crockery shelf. 
Droppy, C, rainy, beginning to rain. 


Drookt, C, severely wet. 

Droven, Druvven, G, driven. 

Drukken, G, drunken. 

Drush doon, C, to rush down, to fall suddenly. 

Druv, Dreuv, Dreav, C, N.E, drove, did drive. 

Dry, Dryish, C, S.W, thirsty. 

Dub, G, a small pond or pool. 

Pub a cock, C, to clip off the comb, &c, preparatory to fighting. 

Dubersom, C, dubious. 

Dubler, C, Dibler, N.E, a large earthenware dish. 

Dud, G, did. 

Duddent, G, did not. 

Duds, G, clothes. "Bits o' duds" — the scanty wardrobe of 

Duddy fuddiel, N.E, a ragged fellow. 
Dudta? G, didst thou? 
Duffy, C, spongy, very soft and woolly. 
Dulbert, C, a dull person of the male sex, a dunce. 
Dumpty, Dumpy, C, short and thick. 
Dumpy cow, Putty cow, C, Bunsan cow, N.E. a cow given to 

attack people. 
Dumfounder, C, to perplex, confuse, astonish. 
Dunch, Dump, Nub, Nudge, G, to butt with the elbow, &c. 
Durdum, G, disturbance. Doordoom— decided or judged at the 

door. — Ferguson. 
Dursent, G, durst not. 
Durt, G, dirt. 

Durtment, G, anything valueless. 
Dust, G, uproar, disturbance. " Kick up a dust." Scand. 

a tumult. 
Dust his jacket, C, thrash him. 

Dusta, Dista, G, dost thou. " Thou behaves badly, 'at dusta." 
Dust, G, one of the provincial terms denoting money. 
Duv, C, Div, N.E, do. Used chiefly in asking questions in the 

first person singular, as, "Duv I?" 
Dwalla, C, to wither, to turn yellow with decay. 
Dwam, C, N.E, swoon — rarely used. 



Dwine, Dwinnel, G, to wither slowly, to dwindle. (D wined, 

also For-dwined, vanished away. — Verstegan.) 
Dwoat, G, to doat. 
Dyster, G, a dyer. 


E, C, the eye, I. 

" Wa, Jwohn, what mannishment 's tis, 
At tou 's gawn to dee for a hizzy ! 
Aw hard o' this torrable fiss, 
An' aw 's cum't to advise thee— 'at is ee." 

Mark Lonsdale's Poems. 
E, S.W, in. " He '11 rin or feyt ivver a yan e' aa Cummerlan." 
Ear fat, Near fat, C, the fat surrounding the kidneys. 
Easter-mun-jiands, G, the polygonum bistorta plant — a common 

ingredient in herb puddings. 
Ebn, C, even. 

Ebn doon thump, C, honestly and truly. 

Eck berry, C, Heck berry, N.E, the bird cherry — prunus padus. 
Edder, Ether, N.E, adder. 

Edge o' dark, Edge o't ibnin, C, evening twilight. 
Eeals, S.W, eels. 
Eeast, S.W, east. 
Eeat, S.W, eat. 
Een, G, eyes. 

Eebnin, Ibnin, G, evening, 
Eernin, C, earning. 

Efter, G, after. " Efter 't, min, an' git hod on 't." Dan. efter. 
Efter a bit, C, in a little time. 
Efter fetches, C, after thoughts or actions. 
Egbattle, C, a person who urges others to quarrel or fight. 
Eg on, C, to urge, to encourage. Ang.-S. eggian, to stimulate. 
Elba grease, C, hard rubbing, using hands and elbows. 
Eldin, C, fuel. " Fire elding." Ang,-S. celd, fire, oelan, to kindle. 
Eldin, N.E, the butter bur — Petasites vulgaris. 
Ellar, G, the alder — Alnus glutinosa. 
Ellik, G, Alexander. 
Elson, G, a shoemakers awl. 


I En, N.E, end. 

| En, S.W, than. " Ise gittan mearr en I ext." 

I Enny, C, Anny, S.W, Onny, N.E, any. 

I Er, N.E, nor. " Mey peype 's a langer er theyne." 

I Er, Ur, C, are. " Hoo ur ya to-day ? " 

I Ern, N.E, iron. Sco. 

I Ernfork, N.E, a pitchfork, or iron fork. 

I Esh, C, Eysh, S.W, the ash tree — Fraxinus excelsior, 

Esp, C, the aspen tree — Populus tremulus. " He trimmelt like 
an esp leaf," 

Est, N.E, nest. 

Et, At,* C, S.W, to. " Gang et thresh." 

Ettle, N.E, to intend, to aim. Sco. 

Eustat, S.W. Eusthwaite in Netherwasdale. Thwaite is thus 
shortened in some instances, 

Ey, G, yes, aye. 

Eyce, N.E, ice. Sco. 

Eydle, N.E, idle. Sco. 

Ezins, G, eaves. 


Fadder, C, S.W, Fayther, N.E, father, "And carf before his 

fader at the table." — Chaucer. 
Fadge, C, a slow trot, market trot. " Fadge te fadge." 
Faff, Faugh, N.E, fallow. 
Faffle, C, to trifle ; imperfect fallow. 

Fafflement, Fiffle-fafflement, C, trifling and unnecessary work. 
Fag end, G, the worthless remains, the last, 
Faggot, C, a term of opprobrium. " An auld faggot ! " 
Faikins, Faix, C, a kind of oaths. 
Fain, G, glad, anxious, eager. Sax,/ce^n, 
Fair, G, positive. " It 's a fair sham." 
Fairly, G, positively. " It 's fairly good ta nought." 
Fairins, G, presents bought at or brought from a fair. 
Fairy rings, G, the dark green rings observed in grass lands, 

* Nearly obsolete now, but common in the eighteenth^ century. ___ £ 


caused by fungii, enlarging the circle year by year. This 

was formerly imputed to fairies. 
Fallops, C, rags hanging about a dress, the dress of an untidy 

Famish, G, famous. 

Fancikal, G, abounding in fancies, subject to change. 
Fand, C, Fawnd, S.W, Fan, Fun, N.E, found. 
Farder, G, further. 
Fardin, G, farthing. 
Fardy, G, Ferdinand. 
Far tha weel, C, Fares ta weel, N.E, fare thee well, farewell. 

" Fares te weel, Watty ! tou 's a wag amang t' lasses, an 

I '11 see thi ne mair ! " — Anderson. 
Fargy, N.E, Fergus. 
Farmatickles, C, Farntickles, N.E, Fantickles, S.W, freckles on 

the face, &c. 
Farleys, N.E, wonders. 

Fash, Gr, trouble, inconvenience. Fr. f ticker, to vex. 
Fashy, Gr, become annoying through intoxication, troublesome. 
Fassen, Gr, fasten. 
Fat 's in t' fire, G, the mischief has begun, all is in a blaze, as if 

fat were thrown upon the fire. 
Faugh ! N.E, an exclamation of contemptuous dissent. 
Faver, C, Favver, S.W, family resemblance. "He favers his 

Faver, C, N.E, Feeaver, S.W, fever. 
Feass, G, face, assurance. " He hez a feass for ought." 
Feasst cards, G, court cards. 
Feeast, S.W, feast. Lan. 
Feale, N.E, fail. 

Fearful, C, S.W, Fearfo', N.E, extraordinary. "Fearfo' kind." 
Feckless, G, feeble, unsubstantial. 

Feek, C, to be uneasy or anxious. "In a feek." Scand. fika. 
Feel, N.E, smooth. 
Feels, N.E, fields. 
Feester, G, to fester. 
Feg, C, fig. " He duzzent care a feg ! " 


Fell in wid, C, S.W, met with by chance. 

Fell heed, C, the top of a mountain not distinguished by a pike. 

Fell an, N.E, oue able to fight his way. 

Felt, G, felled, thrown down. 

Fend, G, to be able to provide or make a livelihood. " Sam 's 
a gay fendy \aa\ body." 

Fend, G, a salute. " Hoo fend ye ? " — how are you ? 

Fendan an preuvvan, 0, defending and proving, arguing and 
debating, criminating and recriminating. 

Fent, G, faint. 

Fess, Fest, C, to send out cattle, &c. to other farms to be grazed. 

Fettle, G, to fit, to put in order; condition. "What fettle 's 
thy fadder in to-day?" Ital. fatto, a thing done. 

Feull, C, N.E, Fooal, S.W, fool. 

Feutt, C, Fooat, S.W, Fit, N.E, the foot, speed, pace. "He 
went a parlish feut ower 't mooar." 

Feutt bo', C, the game of foot-ball. Many parishes formerly 
set apart a day annually for this game ; and at Lamplugh 
it was held in the afternoon of Palm Sunday ! It is still 
(1858) keenly contested at Workington on Easter Tues- 
day, on the banks of, and not unfrequently in, the river 

Fewe, S.W, few (pronounced fay-oo, quickly). 

Fewsom, Fusom, C, shapely, becoming. 

Feyt, C, S.W, Feght. N.E, fight. 

Fic-fac, Fig-fag, C, the neck tendon. 

Fidgetty, G, uneasy, impatient. 

Fift, G, fifth. 

Filly fair, C. Palm Sunday has long been held as a day of 
recreation for young people at Arlecdon, after the children 
of the parish have repeated the catechism in the church? 
and is called Filly fair day. 

Filthment, C, dirt, anything inferior or offensive, low characters. 

Fin, N.E, find. 

Finnd, G, find (pronounced short, as in hint). 

Fine, C, S.W, Feyne, N.E, an unmeaning term of comparison, 
as " a fine girt an," " a fine laal an." 


Finely, C, S.W, healthy. " Aa 's finely, an fadder 's finely an ol 
Fing-er, F, finger. 
Fit, N.E, fought. 
Fitch, G, the vetch. 

" If all the world should, in a fit 
Of temp'rance, feed on vetches." 

Milton's Comus, or. ed. 
Firtle, C, to trifle and appear husy. 
Fiz, C, to make a hissing noise. 
Fizzle, C, to work husily but ineffectually. 
Fizzer, C, to punish, to give pain to, to put in a fix. 
Flail cappin, C, the leather attached to the upper end of the 

flail soople. See Soople. 
Flail hinging, C, the thong connecting the parts of the flail. 
Flaitch, C, to flatter for an advantage. 
Flakker, C, to laugh heartily, like a child, to flapper. 
Flaks, N.E, turf. See Toppin peats. 
Flan, C, N.E, flat, shallow. " They 'd fried eggs and collops in 

a flan dish." 
Flang, G, did fling, having flung. 
Flannin, G, flannel. 
Flate, G-, frightened. 
Flay, G-, to frighten. 
Flaycrow, C, a scarecrow. 
Flaytly, Gr, timidly. 
Flaysom, G, frightful. 

Flegmagaries, N.E, useless fripperies of female attire. — Broekett. 
Fleckt, C, marked with large spots, blotched. Ger. fleck. 
Flecky flocker, N.E, the chaffinch. Sco. 
Flee, G, fly. 
Fleean, G, flying. 

Flee-blown, G, maggots newly deposited. 
Fleet, C, S.W, Flecht, Flit, N.E, flight. 
Fleudd, C, N.E, flood. 
Fleur, G, Fluer, S.W, Fleer, N.E, floor. 
Fleuzz, C. An unhooped walking stick is said to hefleuzt when 

the end is fringed by usage, bruised. 


Fliar, C, to laugh heartily, to laugh and talk loudly. " She 

fliart an' laught." (To have a countenance expressive of 

laughter without laughing out. — Brockett.) 
Flick, C, S.W, Fleek, N.E, flitch (of hacon). 
Flinders, C, fragments, hroken pieces. " If thoo duzzent be 

whyat, aal knock tha o' ta flinders." 
Flinsh, C, the finch. Dan. bogfinch, Teut. blutfineh, the bul- 

Flipe, C, the rim of a hat. Dan. flip, the extremity. 
Flit, C, Fleet, N.E, to remove, and especially when in debt. 

" They meadd a moonleet flit on't." Sc&nd. flytta. 
Flyte, N.E., to jeer, scold. S&x.flitan, to scold or brawl. 
Floff, C, the lightest of chaff. 

Flodder, Flodderment, C, froth, half dissolved snow. 
Flother, N.E, a miry bog. 
Flowe, C, N.E, wild, bleak, and cold. " Oor filly 's varra flow 

yet." " It 's flowe weather." 
Flowe, N.E, an extensive peat bog, as, Solway flowe, &c. 
Fluet, C, a stroke. " Hit him a fluet ower t' lug," 
Fluffy, C, Fufly. N E, very light and loose. 
Flummox, C, to defeat, or put hors de combat. 
Flurry, Flusteration, C, hurry and confusion. 
Fo, C, Faa, S.W, N.E, fall. 
Foald, C, Faald, S.W, Fole, Faal, N.E, fold. 
Foaldin bit ? C, a triangular piece cut from a sheep's ear as a 

mark of ownery. 
Fog, G, aftermath. 
Foggy, C, spongy. 
Foil, C, to defile. When the hounds follow the scent of the 

hare a second time over the same track, they are said to 

be running the old foil ; and trampled ground is said to be 

Fokin, C, the surname of Falcon. 
Follet, G, followed. 
Fone, C, F«an, S.W, N.E, fallen. 

Foo, N.E, full, drunk. Sco. "We are na fou." — Burns. 
Foond, C, to purpose, intend. " I foond to build next year." 


Foor-elders, Fwore- elders, G, ancestors. Scand. fdrelldrer. 

Foorhand, Fworehand, G, beforehand. 

Foormest, Fworemest, G, foremost. 

Foorstart, G, the start before the rest. 

Foothy, C, ~Fawwthy, S.W, bulky, hospitable, N.E, kind, liberal. 

For, G, going. " Whoar is ta for to-day ?" 

Forbye, N.E, besides, over and above. 

Forder, C, to forward or assist, to promote. 

Forgat, Forgit, G, forgot, forget. 

Forivver, G, forever, very much or many. " Theer was forivver 
o' fwok at t' fair." 

Formable, C, properly arranged, in due form. 

Formel, C, to bespeak. 

For o', G, although, notwithstanding. " For a' that, an a' that." 
— Burns. 

Forrat, C, N.E, Forrad, S.W, forward. 

Forseakk, G, forsake. 

Forther, N.E, farther, further. 

Forthneet, C, an annual merrymaking. When flax spinning 
by the line (or lint) wheel was in use, the young would 
assemble in half dozens at neighbour's houses, with their 
wheels, and spend the evening in spinning and singing till 
bed-time, when frequently their sweethearts would be in 
attendance to conduct them home. This custom was 
called gang an forth. See Murryneet. 

Fospel hole, C, the impression of a horse's or other feet on soft 

Fo' throo, C. When a project fails, it is said to fall through. 

Fote, C, Yaat, S.W, fault. 

Foter, Forter, C, Fotter, N.E, to hummel barley, to break off 
the awns. 

Fots, N.E. See Be&tt stockings. 

Fourt, G, fourth. 

Fower, G. four. 

Fowt, N.E, a fondling or foundling. Brockett says, an indulged 
or spoiled child ; any foolish person. 

Fozzy, C, soft as a frosted turnip. 


Frap, C, to snap the finger and thumb ; the noise of a sudden 

crack or report. 
Fratch, G, to quarrel; a noisy quarrel. "He aye snapt his 

thooms for a hit of a fratch." — Anderson. 
Fray, C, S.W, Frev, Freh, Fray, N.E, from. 
Fred, S.W, freed, cleared out. 
Free, C, S.W, under no promise. " I 's free to sell my horse " — to 

keep untouched, to take all the cattle, &c, from a grass field. 
Freelidge, G-, the freehold privileges belonging to the burgage 

Freeten, G, frighten. 

Fremd, S.W, N.E, strange. SeLX.freimd, strange. 
Fresh, C, Freysh, S.W, partly intoxicated ; the flood of a river 

as it flows into the sea. 
Fret, C, S.W, Freet, N.E, to grieve, to tear. Sax.fretan. 
Frind, Freend, N.E, friend. 

Froff, C, Frough, N.E, easily broken. " Froff as a carrot." 
Frosk, C, the frog (nearly obsolete). Aug.- Sax. frosc. 
Frostit, G, spoiled by frost, frosted. 

Frowe, G, a fat and morose woman. Teut.frau, a woman. 
Frowzy, C, coarse and fat. 

Frudge, N.E, to brush past or against in a rude manner. 
Frummety, C, boiled barley and milk. 
Frush, N.E, very brittle, crumbly. 
Fu, C, Fewe, S.W, offer. " Hoo duz he fu?"— How does he 

offer or seem to do ? "I can't fu " — I cannot for shame do 

so, or I cannot begin it. 
Full, C, S.W, Foo, N.E, drunk ; to fill. " Full that cup." 
Full-drive, Ding-drive, G, in hard earnest. " This bargaine is 

ful-drive." — Chaucer. 
Fummel, G, a blundering attempt, fumble. 
Fummellan feast, C. When a married couple are dilatory in 

producing issue, a few sly neighbouring wives assemble, 

unbidden, at the house of the barren pair, and invite 

themselves to tea, and make merry, and wish better success 

to follow. 
Fur, G, fir wood. 


Fur apples, G, fir cones. 

Fur, C, Foor, S.W, furrow. 

Furkin, G, firkin. 

Furm, C, a long stool, form. 

Furst, G, first. 

Fuss, G, bustle, parade, mock business. 

Fuz bo', Fiz bo', G, tbe puff ball'fungus. 

Fuzzen, G, strength, pungency, briskness — applied to drinks. 

Fwoal, G, a foal. 

Fwok, G, folk. The men say " woman fwok," " woman body" ; 

the women say " men fwok," " man body." 
Fworge, G, forge. 
Fworse, C, S.W, force ; a waterfall. 


Gab, Gob, G, the mouth ; idle talk. Sax. gabban. " Why 
gabbest thou that saids't unto me." — Ch. 

Gabble, G, to talk quickly, and not wisely. 

Ga, Gang, Gowa, C, S.W, Gan, Gowe, N.E, go. Gowa is nearly 
obsolete. It was chiefly used as an invitation to accom- 
pany another. " Come, lads, an gowa to 't reasses.'' 

Gaan, Gangan, G, going. Scand. ganga, to go. 

Gain, N.E, handy, near. See Bain. 

Galore, Galoor, C, abundance. Sax. geleoran. 

Gally-balk, N.E, the beam on which the chimney crook hangs. 
See Rannel tree. 

Gallas, G, a person of evil conduct ; gallows. 

Gallases, C, braces, suspenders. 

Gam, N.E, game. 

Gammel, G, gamble. 

Gammerstang, G, a tall, awkward person. 

Gangrel, G, a tramp, a vagabond. 

Gang thy ways, C ; this merely signifies " go," and is becoming 
obsolete. " Gang thy ways an' fetch watter," 

Gar, G, to compel. " Aal gar tha gang." Scand. giora. 

Garn, C, S.W, Gairn, Yern, N.E, yarn. 


Garn winnels, C, a wooden cross from which yarn is wound off. 
Garrak, C, awkward. " As garrak as an unbroken cowt." 
G-arron, C, a tall, awkward horse; N.E, anything high or tall. 
Garth, G, a small enclosure near the house, as the Calfgarth, 

Hempgarth, Stackgarth, Applegarth, &c. Norw. gardhr, 

a hedge. 
Gat, G, got, 

Gatins, G, sheaves of corn set up singly to dry. 
Gaut, G, a boar pig. Scand. galti. 

Gawky, N.E, a staring, idiotical person. Gaice, old Irish, a fool. 
Gawvison, N.E, a noisy and foolish person. (A simpleton. — 

Brockett. ) 
Gay, Gayly, G, augmentative terms, as, " a gay girt an." 
Gayly, G, to be in health. " I 's gayly, how 's thoo ?" 
Gayshen, N.E, an emaciated person, one reduced almost to a 

skeleton. (A silly-looking person. — Stagg's Poems.) 
Gaz, C, S.W, Gangs, N.E, goes. "He gaz oot ivry day." 
Gceaa, C, go — a hunting term. " Hoo geaa hark to Towler !" 
Geall, C, Dinnel, N.E, to ache with coid. 
Geann, G, gone. 

Geapp, G, gape ; to yawn. Sax. geapen. 
Geatt, G, gate, path, foot-trod, way. " Git oot o' my geatt." 

Dan. gade. 
Geavlock, C, Geavlick, N.E, an iron crowbar. Ang.-S. gafelok. 
Ge,* Gee,* G, give. " Ge me that." 
Gee,* C. " He 's teann V gee" — he has taken offence. 
Geen,* Gin,* G, given. " He 's geen tult" — he is disposed to it. 
Geer, G, wealth ; cart and plough harness, 
Geggin, C, a small tub having a long stave for a handle. See 

Geggles, C, a giddy girl, a careless horse which carries a high 

and unsteady head. 
Geld grund, C, a mining term, signifying ground devoid of 

Gentle and semple, C, upper and lower classes of society. 
Geiidd, N.E, good. 

* G hard. 


Geuss, C, N.E, Gooas, S.W, goose. 

Gev, C, S.W, Geh, N.E, gave. " He geh sek a shout!" 

Geyde, N.E, guide. Sco. 

Gez, S.W, goes. " He gez wid his feet breadd side furst." 

Gezlin, G, gosling. 

Gidder, Gedder, Gether, G, gather. 

Gif, Gin, N.E, if, Sco. 

Gilcroose, C, Gilcrux parish and village. 

Gildert, C, a number of snares attached to a hoop for entrap- 
ping birds in the snow. Scand. gildra, a snare. 

Gill, Ghyll, G, a ravine. Norw. gil, a mountain chasm. 

Gilt, Opengilt, C, S.W, a young sow intended for breeding pur- 

Gimmer, G, a female sheep not exceeding two years old. 
Scand. gimbra, a ewe. 

Gimlek, C, Gimlik, S.W, Gemlek, N.E, gimlet. 

Ginners, G, the gills of a fish. 

Girdle, C, Gurdle, N.E, a circular baking plate. 

Girn, C, S.W, Gurn, N.E, grin, to growl. 

Girse, C, S.W, Gurse, N.E, grass. " Theer \aa\ girse in our 
girsin field t' year." Germ. 

Girt, Greet, C, Greeat, S.W, Gurt, Greet, N.E, great, friendly. 

Girtings, N.E, girthings. 

Girt goods, C, the larger domestic animals, cattle and horses. 

Giss ! Gissy ! call notes for swine. 

Giss nor sty, C, when a person does not speak or answer, people 
say " he nowder says gis nor sty." 

Git, G, get. 

Githa, Githet, Githemt, G, give thee, give thee it, give it to them. 

Gittan, G, getting. "He's gittan his crowdy." 

Gitten, G, got, gotten. 

Git it, G, " thoo '11 git it," thou wilt get punished, &c. 

Give him as good as he sends, G, to retaliate. 

Give mouth, G, to speak out, to give tongue, a hunting phrase. 

Giz, C, S.W, Gees, N.E, gives, give us. 

Gizzern, C, Gizzin, N.E, gizzard. 

Glad, C, S.W, Gleg, N.E, working smoothly. Ang.-S. gled, 


Glazener, C, glazier. 

Glee, C, N.E, Sken, S.W, to squint. 

Gleg, Gleb, N.E, sharp, quick. "He's gleg at that job." 

Glent, C, Glint, N.E, glance. " Greahondes thorowe the greves 

glent." — Old Ballad of Chevy Chase. 
Gleuvv, N.E, glove. 
Gliff, Whiff, G, transient view, glance. 
Glime, C, Gleyme, N.E, to look sidewise. " Glyman oot of 

end ov his e." 
Glisk, C, to glance in the sun light; a flash of reflected light. 
Glop, C, S.W, to stare, to look wildly. 
Gloppers, S.W. See Blinders. 

Glower, Glwore, C, S.W, Gloor, Glower, N.E, to stare. 
Glum, G, gloom, gloomy. 
Glumpt, N.E, gloomed, sulked. 
Glowt, S.W, a clumsy fellow. See Loot. 
Go, G, an affair. " A bad go." 
Gob, Gab, G, the mouth, idle talk. Scand. gopi. Dan. gab, an 

Gobstick, N.E, a wooden spoon. 
Go bon, C, a sort of oath. 
Goddy, N.E, a sponsor. 

Godspeed, C, a wooden screen within the door. 
Goff, C, S.W, Guff, N.E, a fool. Scand. gufa. 
Gok sonn ! a kind of oath and exclamation of surprise. 
Goller, N.E, to shout, to bark or talk loudly. 
Gommarel, N.E, an awkward and silly person. 
Gone back, C, declined in health or substance. 
Gone wid it, C, having accomplished it; recovered. 
Gone bye his sel', C, gone deranged. 
Good an, C. "He set* to wark like a good an" — with spirit, 

Goodeben, G, good evening. 
Goodlike, C, good looking. 
Good, C, congratulate. " He may good his sel' on 't, for he 11 

git na mair." 
Good for yan good for another, C, applicable to all alike. 
Good-man, G, the husband. (" Goman. It should be Good- 


man. It intends a married man, a householder." — 
Good to ought, Good to nought, C, good for anything, good for 

A man may spend 
And God will send, 
If his wife be good to ought: 
But man may spare 
And still be bare, 
If his wife be good to nought." 

Cumberland Rhyme. 

Goon, C, N.E, Gawwn, S.W, gown. 

Gope, C, to shout. 

Gorlin, N.E, an unfledged bird. "As neakkt as a gorlin." 

Gorrish, C, gross, over luxuriant. 

Gowd, N.E, gold. 

Gowk, C, the cuckoo ; a fool. Scand. gaukr. 

Gowl, G, the howl of a dog; to weep. Scand. gaula. Ir. guil, 

to weep. 
Gowpin, G, a handful, or the two hands full. Scand. gaupn. 
Gowze, C, to hurst out suddenly, a rush of fluid. " Water com 

gowzan out." 
Goyster, Eoyster, C, N.E, to bully. " He 's a goysteran feull." 
Grab, C, to snatch at, to lay hold of quickly. 
Gran, N.E, grand. Sco. 

Grains, G, prongs. Fork grains, otter grains, (fee. 
Grain't, G, forked. 
Granny, G, grandmother. 
Grapple, C, to catch fish by hand in a brook. 
Grater-feasst, C, marked with small-pox. 
Grat, Gret, N.E, wept. 
Grave, Greavv, C, S.W, Grave, N.E, to dig with a spade. 

Ang. S. grafan. 
Gray beard, C, Gray hen, N.E, a gray stone bottle. 
Graidly, S.W, proper, good, York, and Lan., seldom heard in 

Grayseunn, C, Greysouthen village. 
Gray yodes, G, grey horses ; a circle of stones near Cumwhitton. 


Greamm, G, Graham. 

Grecian, C, Greean, S.W, Grane, N.E, groan. 

Greapp, C, Greeap, S.W, Grape, Greapp, N.E, grope ; to feel. 

Gree, G. agree. " They 're about greean for a horse." 

Greeas, S.W, grease. Lan. 

Greeaz, S.W, to apply grease. Lan. 

Greatht, Graitht, N.E, dressed, accoutred. 

Greet, C, N.E, to weep. Ang.-S. grcetan. 

Greeny, C, the green linnet. 

Greg, Grype, C, to mortify the mind. 

Greunn, C, a swine's snout, a projecting upper lip. 

Greupp, C, Greeap, S.W, Groop, Grup, N.E, the space behind 

cows in stalls. 
Greiivvs, C, places from whence coal or slate, &c, has been dug. 
Grimy, C, Greymy, N.E, sooty, begrimed. 
Grimin, C, Greymin, N.E, a thin covering of snow, &c. See 

Gripe, C, Greype, Greapp, N.E, Muckfork, S.W, a dung fork. 

Goth, grepe. 
Grissle, C, Grussle, Grissle, N.E, gristle, cartilage. 
Groats, G, shelled oats. 

Groosam, N.E, grim, dark, and morose, coarse featured. 
Grosk, C, freely grown, gross. 
Grout, C, thin mortar. 
Grouty, C, rather muddy. 
Grovven, G, dug with a spade. 
Growan, G, growing. 
Growe, G, grow. 
Grummel, G, grumble. 

Grund, C, Grend, S.W, Grun, Grin, N.E, ground, grind. 
Grundswaith, Booin, C, Agreen, N.E, Muggert, E, the ragwort 

plant. — Senecio Jacobcea. Ang.-S. grundeswylian. 
Gryke, Cryke, C, a crevice or ravine in the side of a fell or hill. 

Scand. kryki, a recess. 
Gull, C, the corn marigold — Chrysanthemum segetum. 
Gully, C, S.W, a butcher's knife, a large knife used for slicing 

bread and cheese, a hollow or slack between hills. 


Gumpshin, C, spirit, wit, sense, shrewdness. 

Gurth, G, girth. 

Gutlin, C, a gormandiser. 

Gwoat, G, goat. Br. gait, goit. 

Gwol, C, a deep pool. 

Gwordy, C, Jordy, S.W, Gworge, Jordy, N.E, George. 

Gyversom (g hard), C, eating greedily, very anxious. 


Haa, S.W, N.E, hall. 

Haak an' spit, G, to clear the throat and spit out, to expecto- 
rate forcibly. 
Haak, S.W, N.E, hawk. 

Hack, G, a pickaxe, a hackney horse. Dan. hakke. 
Hackin, C, Haggis, N.E, a pudding of mincemeat and fruit, 

used till lately for the family breakfast on Christmas Day. 
Hackt, C, Chapt, S.W, cracked hands from cold or neglect. 
Hadder, N.E, to drizzle ; small rain. " It hadders an' rains 

Haffets, N.E, locks of hair on the temples. (The temples. 

Hag, G, to hew or chop with an axe. Sc. hag. 
Hag clog, Hagstock, C, Hag clog, N.E, a chopping block.. 
Haggan at it, C, persevering to labour. 
Haggis, N.E, a pudding of mincemeat, to eat with potatoes en 

Christmas day. Sco. 
Haggle, C, to teaze in bargaining, to overwork, to fatigue. 
Haggle, N.E. See Hassel. 
Hag worm, C, a snake. 
Hain, N.E, to preserve untouched. 
Hairly, N.E, hardly, scarcely. 
Hake, C, to tire, to distress. As applied to land, it indicates 

exhaustion, or being over- cropped. 
Hake, C, a convivial assembly or dance. 
Hake, N.E, a lean horse or cow; to butt with the horns or 



Hakes, C, doings. " Sec hakes !"— such doings! 

Hakkar, C, to stammer. " He hakkars, an' gits nin on wid his 

talk ! " 
Hallan, C, the division between two horse or cow stalls. 
Hallan, N.E, a partition within the entrance of an old-fashioned 

farm house. 
Hammer-bleat, C, Heather- bleat, N.E, the snipe. In the 

breeding season, the note of the male bird resembles the 

bleating of a goat in the air, 
Hammer-band, C, constant pull on the shoulders. In old 

times the horse was yoked to the cart by a rope from the 

shoulders, and an iron ring sliding on the shaft, held by a 

pin. This was hammerband yoking. 
Ham sam, C, promiscuous, all in confusion. 
Han, N.E, hand. 

Hanch, C, to snap as a dog does, when it bites suddenly. 
Handstaff, C, the first half of a flail. 
Hangarel. See Hanniel. 
Hank, C, to fasten with a hoop or loop ; an evil habit. He 's 

gitten a hank o' gangan out at' neets." 
Hankerin, C, N.E, a longing. " He still hez a hankerin for her." 
Hankie, C, to entangle. 

Hankisher, C, Hankutcher, N.E, handkerchief. 
Hangment, C, devil; an exclamation of surprise — "What the 

hangment 's yon?" To be very severe — "He '11 play the 

hangment with a'." 
Hannel, C, handle, a large pail. 

Hanniel, C, N.E, Hallion, Hangarel, N.E, a long, hungry- 
looking fellow. " A girt lang hanniel." 
Hanny, Hannykit, N.E, a tub with a long handle. 
Hansel, G, to use for the first time; the price of the first 

article sold, or the first money received. Goth, handsoel, 

the first receipts for sales. 
Hantel, N.E, a large quantity, a number of. Sco. 
Hap, G, to cover. " She hap't o' t' barns up at bedtime." 
Hapm, C, Happen, N.E, happen. 
Happins, C, thick wollen bed-covers, woven carpetwise. 


Hapshy rapshy, C, at random, haphazard. 

Hard, C, hardy. " He 's as hard as a fell teadd." 

Hard, Hurd, He-ard, G, heard. 

Hard bye, C, S.W, near to. 

Harem scarem, G, a wild, unsettled person. 

Hardfully, C, industriously. "He gits his leevin reet hard- 

Harp on, Gr, to often refer to an unpleasant subject. 
Harrial, C, Heriot. 
Harrish, C, harass. 

Harrishin, N.E, violent invasion, harrying. 
Har, Hartree, C, the stronger end of a gate. 
Harry, N.E, to rob. Ang.-Sax. herian, to invade. 
Hartsom, G, lively, cheerful. 
Hash, C, harsh. 

Hash, C, " Settle his hash " — finish him off. 
Hask, C, dry and cold. " Hask weather." 
Hassel, C, Haggle, N.E, to cut with a blunt knife, and with a 

sawing motion. 
Hat, G, hit. 

Hath ye, Hagh ye, listen, hark ye. Seldom used. 
Hat shaws, Heudds, G, the two covering sheaves of a corn 

Haugh, N.E, holm land, flat alluvial land by the river side. 
Havrel, Hovrel, N.E, a foolish fellow. 
Hawer, C, S.W, Woats, N.E, oats. 
Haw, C, Haa, S.W, the fruit of the hawthorn. 
Hawse, Gr, a mountain pass. 
Havy skavy, C, Hevy skevy, N.E, all in confusion. 
Hay ? G, what did you say ? 
Haybay, C, disturbance. 
Haybote, G, the right of cutting a specified quantity of hay 

grass from the property of another. 
Haygang, C, the gangway leading from the barn or hayloft to 

the cowstalls. 
Hay mew, or mu, G, hay mow. 
Hayler, C, one who works or does anything energetically and 

effectively. " He is a hayler at it." 


Hayness, C, (heinous) extraordinary. " Hayness fine," " Hay- 

ness dirty." 
Hayster, -G, to starve. An animal severely pinched by hunger 

and cold is haystert. 
Headd, Heudd, G, hid. 
Heafgangan, (sheep) C, S.W, Hefted, N.E, mountain sheep let 

along with a farm, and depastured on a particular part of 

the common called a heaf — probably a corruption of 

" heath," which word is sometimes used. 
Heckles, G, the long neck-feathers of a cock. 
Hed, G, had. Heddent, had not. 
Hedder, G, heather. 

Hedder feasst, N.E, rough -faced, unshaven. 
Hedge bote, Gr, the right of getting hedging wood from the 

property of another. 
Hee, C, N.E, Hey, S.W, high. 

Hee, C, a call-note for a cur dog. " Hee Cwolly," " Hee Bar- 
foot," &c. 
Heed, C, N.E, Heead, S.W, head. " Than may he boldly beren 

up his hede." — Gh. 
Heedam acrossam, C, all in disorder like hay and straw. 
Heed geer, C. " He 's gitten his heed geer" — he is injured so 

that he cannot survive. 
Heedlin, C, N.E, Heeadlin, S.W, head-rig or headland. 
Heedwark, C, Heedyik, Heedwork, N.E, headache, 
Heeals, S.W, heels. 

Heedstan, Gr, a memorial stone at the head of a grave. 
Hee leet day, C, broad daylight. " They drank an' sang till 

hee leet day."— Old Song. 
Heeap, S.W, heap, a good many. " A heeap o' things." 
Heerensew, C, Herrinshoo, N.E, the heron. " Ne of hir 

swannes, ne hir heronseices" — Gh. 
Heerins, Herrins, G, herrings. 
Heme, S.W, Hiffle, C, Haffle, N.E, to be undecided. 
Heft, N.E, to prevaricate; heaf. See Heaf gang an. 
Heft, G, haft, the handle ; have it. 
Hefter, C, N.E, an effective speech or operation. " That is a 



Hekkap, G, hiccup. Brockett gives the following cure for 
hiccup : repeat — 

"Hickup, snickup, stand up, straight up; 
One drop, two drops — good for the hiccup." 

Helm wind, G, an atmospheric phenomenon prevalent on the 

west side of Crossfell. 
Helpsom, C, ready and willing to help. 
Hetter, G, hatter. 

Helter skelter, G, hurry and confusion. 
Hemmer, N.E, a hammer; to hammer. 
Hemp dub, G, a small pond used for steeping green hemp. 
Hemplin, C, the red linnet ; a head- rig sown with hemp. 
Hempy, N.E, a mischievous character, one who bids fair to 

deserve hanging. 
Hench, C, S.W, Hinch, Hainch, N.E, the hip. 
Hen drunks, C, the fruit of the mountain ash is reputed to 

possess the property of intoxicating fowls. 
Hen pen, C, the yellow rattle plant — Rhinanthus crista-galli. 
Herd up, C, S.W, Heurd, N.E, to hoard. "Weel may he be 

rich, for he 's been herdan up o' his life." 
Herdwicks, C, the mountain sheep of the west of Cumberland. 

These are reputed to have originated from about forty 

which swam ashore from a wrecked Norwegian vessel. 

They were taken possession of by the lord of the manor, 

and on their increase, being found hardy and suitable for 

the mountains, were let out in herds or flocks with the 

Herple, C, Hurple, N.E, to walk lame, to limp. 
Hesp, G, a hasp. 
Hesta ? G, hast thou ? 
Hetham, G, have them. 
Hettish, Het, G, rather hot, hot. 
Het feutt, C, S.W, in a great hurry. 
Het trod, N.E, in close pursuit. " He follo't the reivers on the 

het trod." 
Het yal an' a stick in it, C, hot ale with spirits in it. 
Heudd, N.E, a hood. 


Heugh, N.E, a dry dell, a ravine without water. 

Heukk, G-, hook. 

Heukster, C, a huckster or small trader. 

Heupp, G-, a six quart measure, formerly made of a broad 

wooden hoop. 
Heiizz, C, N.E, Hoose, S.W, a cough. 
Hev, G, Hay, N.E, have. 
Hewent, G, and Hennet, N.E, have not. 
Hez, G, has. " He hez tha noo " — He is thy master, or superior, 

or captor. 
Hezzel, G, Hizzel, N.E, hazel. 
Hey howe ! Hey howe ham ! unmeaning exclamations, often 

used when yawning. 
Hide, C, S.W, Heyde, N.E, a hide ; to heat. 
Hidlins, G, anything hidden or put out of sight. 
Hickelty pickelty, C, S.W, Higgelty piggelty, N.E, intermixed, 

heads and tails. 
Hilth, N.E, health. 
Hinder ends, C, refuse or light corn blown out of the hinder 

end of the winnowing machine. 
Hin en, N.E, hinder end. 
Hing, G, hang. Hingan, G, hanging. 
Hing on, G, continue, stick to it. 
Hine berries, N.E, raspberries. 
Hinmest, N.E, hindmost. 
Hinny, N.E, honey. 
Hippins, C, undercloths for infants. 
Hisk, C, the difficulty a person experiences in breathing on 

plunging into a cold bath. " He hisk't when he went in." 
Hitten, G, hit. 
Hiwy, N.E, heavy. 
Hiz-sel, C, himself. 
Hizzy, N.E, hussy. 
Ho, C, Haa, S.W, N.E, hall. 

Ho bye, Hod bye, G, Had bye, N.E, stand out of the way. 
Ho, Hoo, G, preliminary expletives, used as some use the word 



Hoaflins, N.E, half done, half witted, half shares. 

" When 't is carded, row'd, and spun, 
Then the wark is haflins done." 

Old Song of " Tarry woo" 

Hoald, Hod, C, Haald, S.W, Had, N.E, hold, shelter. " They 've 

nowder house nor hoald to draw teah." 
Hobble, G, difficulty. " In a hobble." 

Hobblety-hoy, G, an ungainly lad ; man springing out of boy. 
Hodden gray, G, cloth made from undyed black and white wool. 
Hod pot, G, the one who detains the bottle or drinking vessel. 
Hod ta dea, C, useless employment, " It 's fair hod to dea" 
Hod te tail i' watter ! C, persevere, stick to it — a phrase of 

Hoddenly, G, frequently, continually, without intermission. 
Hoddit, C, held. 
Hod thy jo, G, be silent. 
Hofe, Hafe, G, Haf, N.E, half. 

Hofe reet, C, half witted. " He 's nobbet a hofe reet." 
Hofe thick, C, Haf thick, N.E, a foolish person, a half fatted 

Hog, G, a lamb for twelve months after weaning. 
Hoggas, C, Hoggast, E, a sheep house, a house for wintering 

lambs in. 
Hoggers, N.E, upper stockings without feet. See Beutt stockins. 
Hokker, C, S.W, to scramble awkwardly. 
Holm, C, S.W, Haugh, N.E, level land by a river side. 
Honey, G, a term of endearment. 
Honk, C, a lazy fellow. " Honkan about heamm when he sud 

be at wark." 
Hoond, C, Hawnd, S.W, Hoon, Hun, N.E, hound. 
Hoor, C, N.E, Idle hizzy, N.E, whore. 
Hoo that? C, why was it so? 
Hoose, C, N.E, Hawse, Hooas, S.W, house, the apartment into 

which the front door opens. 
Hoosin, C, a set of buildings. 
Hoot ! Hut ! C, Hout tout ! N.E, expressions of dissent, or 

denoting contempt, or inferiority. 


Hopenny, Haypenny, C, S.W, Haapenny, N.E, halfpenny. 
Hopenny heed an' a fardin tail, C, the different parts do not 

correspond; one part much better than another. 
Hopple, C, N.E, to fetter. See Langel. 

Horn hard, C. " He wink't horn hard when he fire't his gun." 
Horse mallison, C, a person who abuses his horse. 
Horse mezzur, C, a measure used for dealing out oats, &c, for 

Horsin steann, G, horse block ; a stone or block, or short 

flight of steps, to mount horses from. 
Hot. See Muck hot. 
Hotch, C, S.W, to shake roughly. A fat person " hotches an' 

laughs " when his sides shake with laughter. 
Hotter, C, totter. 
Howdy, N.E, a midwife. 
Howe, C, hollow, empty ; a gentle hill or eminence, or knoll ; 

a hoe. 
Howe strowe, C, all in disorder. 
Howk, G, to dig, to scratch in the earth, &c, to punish. " Aa\ 

ge thee a howkin, aa lay." 
Ho-way, Hoo-way, C, H<x-way, S.W, go along. 
Hoyden, G, a romping girl. 
Hoyse, C, Heese, S.W, N.E, hoist. 
Hoyty toyty, C, Hyty tyty, N.E, haughty, nighty. 
Hubble, C, a crowd. "A hubble o' fwok." 
Hud, C, the hob, or side of the fireplace. 
Hudden, N.E, hidden. 

Huff, C, to despise ; pet. " He went away in a huff." 
Hug, C, to pull. 
Huggaback, C, a climbing vetch — Vicia cracca; a coarse kind 

of toweling. 
Hugger mugger, C, to act in a clandestine or unfair manner. 

to spend time unprofitably. " Hugger muggeran aboat 

Hulert, C, Hullet, S.W, Hoolet, N.E, the owl. Fr. hulotte. 
Hulk, C, a tall lazy fellow. " A lang hulk." 
Hull, G, a small shed for calves or pigs, &c. 


Hum an' haa, C, S.W, to hesitate in speaking. 

Humlin, C, Hummel, S.W, a sheep with both testicles in its loins. 

Hummel jummel, C, N.E, confusedly mixed up. 

Hun, N.E, a hound; to hound. 

Hunsup, C, to scold ; the name of the lively tune peculiar to 

Christmas — " The hunt 's up through the wood." 
Hup, Gr, up. " Hup witha " — up with thee. 
Hur, G, her. 
Hurd, N.E, herd. 
Hur-sel, Gr, herself. 
Hurry surry, C, impetuosity. 
Hursle, C, hustle. 

Hush, C, gush. " Bleudd hush't out like watter ! " 
Hush, C, to cover a scandal, to make a secret agreement. " It 

was queer wark, bit they husht it up." 
Huz, G, S.W, Hiz, N.E, us. 
Hysta, C, hie thee. 
Hyvio, C, N.E, the ivy. 

P, G, a contraction of in or I, pronounced as aa short. 

Ianberries, C, Angleberries, N.E, excrescences on the under 
parts of cattle. 

Ice shockle, C, Ice shoggle, N.E, icicle. 

Ike, C, Isaac. 

Ilet hole, C, a lacing hole in a pair of stays, &c. 

Ill, Gr, evil. " He 's been an ill an (one) o' his life." 

Ill f arrant, N.E, ill-favoured. 

Ill geen, G-, given to evil deeds, ill given, bad tempered. 

Illin, C, Eelin, N.E, Eleanor. 

Ilk, Ilka, N.E, each, every. ("Ylcan or Ylc, the same. Some- 
times it is taken for each" — Verstegan.) 

Illmite, N.E, very bad tempered. 

Ill teull, C, a bad boy or man, tool of evil. 

Imma, Gr, in me. 

Immeadatly, S.W T , immediately. 

Ime, Imin, C, a thin scum or covering. 

In a twitter, N.E, soon, quickly. 

In av, N.E, in. " He leeves in av Aikton parish." 

Inbank, Inhill, G, down hill. 

Income, C, S.W, a swelling or other bodily infirmity the origin 

of which is not apparent. (" Ancome." — Boucher.) 
Indiwer, N.E, endeavour. 
Ing, G, a common name for meadow land in a low situation. 

Dan. eng, a meadow. 
Inkle, C, coarse tape. " Thick as inkle weavers " — very intimate. 
Inklin, G-, an imperfect hint or intimation. 
Innam, G, in him. 

Insense, C, N.E, to make a person comprehend. 
Intuit, Inteut, C, Intilt, N.E, into it. 
Ir, G, are. " Ir ya gaan away ? " 
Irrant, Gr, are not. 
Is, G, are. " Hoo is ye to-day?" 
Isha, Gr, is she ? 
Ista, G, is thou, art thou ? 
Ister, G, is there ? 
Ither, N.E, other. 
Ittal, G, it will. 

Ivry like, G, every now and then. 
Ivverly, G, frequently, continuously. 
I watna, N.E, I wit not, I know not. Sco. 
Iiz, G, lam. " I iz to hevher"; S.W, " Izebe like tahevher," 
Izels, C, flakes from burning straw, &c, dead fire of wood in 

an oven. 
Ize, G, I am, I shall. "Ize give him a whack." 
Izza? C, is he? 
Izzent, G, is not. 
Izzet, C, the letter Z. 
Izzy ? G, is I, am I ? 


Jabber, C, garrulity. 

Jab, C, to spill. " She browt sum milk in a can, an' it jabt 
ower at ivry step." 


Jackalegs, C, Jockylegs, N.E, a pocket clasp-knife. 

Jags, C, splinters, rags. 

Jam, C, to squeeze, to press against, to wedge. 

Jamers, C, Jammers, Jemmers, S.W, Jimmers, N.E, small cup- 
board hinges. 

Jamp, G, jumped. 

Jams, S.W, James. 

Jang-el, G, to disagree and argue with ill temper. 

Jangelment, G, angry disputations. 

Jannock, C, Jannick, N.E, right, fit, true. 

Jant, C, Awtm, S.W, jaunt. 

Jarble, C, to bespatter. 

Jarrat, G, Gerard. 

Jayls, C, Gealls,* N.E, the cracks and fissures of timber in 

Jayvel, C, to stagger, walk loosely. 

Jedder, C, to jarr; discord. 

Jeelas, N.E, jealous. 

Jeest, Jyst, C, joist. 

Jennyspinner, C, the Tipula, longlegs. 

Jert, G, S.W, jerk. 

Jew trump, Joo trump, C, Jew's harp, or jaw harp. 

Jeybe, N.E, jibe. Sco. 

Jeyk, C, to creak like machinery requiring oil, the creaking 
noise made by new shoes. Lad : " Aa want a par o' new 
shun, an put us in a penn'orth o' jeykin ledder." Shoe- 
makee : " Ey, an thoo sal hev a penn'orth o' stirrup ledder 
for nought, if thool come hither." 

Jiffy, C. "Ina jiffy" — in an instant. 

Jillet, N.E, jilt. 

Jimp, G, tight, too little ; tucked up in the flank, as greyhounds 

Jing, C. " By Jing ! " " By Jingo ! " — rustic oaths. 

Jing-el, G, jingle. 

Jo, Jaw, C, Jaa, S.W, bad language. 

Jo, Jobby, C, Jwosep, G, Joseph. 

* G hard. 


Joggle, Jull, C, to push, to disturb the elbow of a person 
writing. Teut. shockelen, to shove or shake. 

Jome, C, the side stone of a door or window, jaumb. 

Jonas, C, S.W, the jaundice. 

Jook, C, a long and tiresome travel on foot. N.E, to elude ; an 
attempt to escape a missile. 

Joram, C, Jworum, N.E, a large mess, abundance. 

Jowl, C, the jaw ; to jumble. This word relates more particu- 
larly to the disturbing of a vessel containing fluid. 

Jummel, C, jumble. 

Jumper, C, N.E, the skipping maggot of the small flesh-fly 
Piophila; a chisel for boring stone with. 

Jump wid, C, to fall in with, to meet accidentally. 

Jwoke, C, joke. 

Jwon, Jack, C, Jwoany, Jock, N.E, John. 

Jyste, C, to agist, or put cattle out to grass on another's farm. 


Ka bye, GT, stand out of the way, come by. 

Kanjy, C, cross-grained, untoward. 

Kay, C, Keah, S.W, key. 

Kay bittit, C, a sheep's ear marked by having a square piece 

cut from the edge. 
Kayk, C, to wander listlessly, " Kaykan aboot like a pet geuss." 
Kayk, C, N.E, a twist to one side. " She hez a kayk in her neck." 
Kaymt, C, ill-disposed, contradictious, crooked. Ir. cam, to 

Keadd, C, the sheep's ked or louse. 
Keakk, Gr, cake. 
Keall, G, kale, broth; N.E, greens, porridge of oatmeal. Dan. 

Keall runts, N.E, cabbage stalks. 
Kearr, C, care. 
Keass, G-, case. 
Keatty, C, Catherine. 


Keavv, C, Teavv, N.E, to paw with the fore feet; to kick the 

straws out of a heap of corn with the foot and a rake. 

Scand. keyfa. 
Kebby stick, C, S.W, Nibby, Nibt stick, N.E, a hooked stick. 
Keckle, G, cackle. 
Keek, N.E, to peep. Goth. kika. " Into the roof they kyken, 

and they gape." — Ch. 
Keen on 't, G, fond of it. 
Kel, Keld, C, a small spring, Dan. kilde, a fountain, Norw. kill, 

a brook. 
Kelly, C, land containing small springs which partly dry up in 

Kelk, C, to hit roughly. 
Kelker, C, a severe blow. 
Kelter, C, money, riches. 

Kemps, C, hairs intermixed in the growth of wool. 
Ken, G, to know, to see. Sax. ken, knowledge, cennan, to know. 
Kengeudd, N.E, something to remember, an example of good. 

Kenspeckled, C, S.W, Kenspect, N.E, conspicuous, having dis- 
tinct marks. 
Kep, G, to catch anything in the act of falling. Ang.-Sax. 

Kersen, G, to christen, 
Kern, C, Kern, S.W, N.E, churn. 
Kern supper, S.W, Kurn supper, C, Kern winnin, N.E, harvest 

Kesh, C, the cow parsnip — Heracleum spondylium. 
Keslop, C, S.W, the cured stomach of a calf, used for making 

Kest, C, S.W, cast. 

Kessen, C, S.W, casten. " T' sky 's owerkessen." 
Ket, G, filth, carrion. Scand. ket, dead flesh. 
Keudd, G, cud. 
Keiill, G, cool. 

Kevvel, C, N.E, to kick or leap awkwardly. 
Keynd, Keyn, N.E, kind. 


Kezzick, G, Keswick. 

Kick, C, the top of the fashion. " The varra kick." 
Kill, G, a kiln. 

' Kill coo, C. " Neah girt kill coo " — no great o eject. 
Kill-dryt feass, C, a parched and withered face. 
Kilp, C, a sharp hend or angle. " kilps and creuks." 
Kilt up, N.E, to fasten up the skirts of the dress. Sco. 
Kin, Kinsfwok, G, kindred, relations. 
Kind ov, C, rather. " It 's a kind o' leattish." 
Kins, C, Keens, Keen cuts, N.E, cracks in the hands caused by 

King cough, C, the hooping cough. 
Kink, C, the peculiar sound of the hooping cough ; a curling 

twist in a rope or cord. 
Kinnel, G, kindle. 
Kipper, C, salmon out of season. 
Kippert, C, N.E, fish partially pickled. 
Kirk, Kurk, G, church. Sax. cyric, Belg. kerke* 
Kirk gaan, G, church going, regular in attendance at church. 
Kirk garth, G, churchyard. 
Kissin crust, G, the piece of crust adhering to a loaf, and which 

has been broken from another loaf — they having been in 

contact whilst baking. 
Kist, G, chest. 

Kit, C, a small wooden pail or tub. 
Kit, C, a term of contempt. "The heall kit" — the whole set 

or company. 
Kith, N.E, acquaintance. Sco. 
Kitlin, C, a kitten. 

Kittle, C, to tickle, to bring forth kittens ; active. 
Kittle as a mouse trap, G, easily acted on, quick, excitable. 
Kizzent, C, over roasted, shrivelled. 
Knaa, S.W, know. Lan. 
Knack, G, method, " He hez t' knack ont." 
Knack, C, N.E, to talk quick and attempt fine language. " She 

knacks an' talks like rotten sticks." 
Knaggy, G, crotchety, short tempered. Scand. nagga, to quarrel. 


Knap, Nap, C, to strike gently and quickly. 

Knattle, C, to tap gently. 

Kneavv, G, knave. Teut. knabe, a male child, Sax. cnapu. 

Kneaww, S.W, knew. Lan. 

Knep, Nep, C, to bite in play, as horses do. 

KneMd, C, to butt with the head, as a calf or lamb does when 

sucking. Sax. cncedan, to work meal into dough. 
Knidgel, C, to castrate by ligature. 
Kneyfe, N.E, knife. Sco. 
Knockles, G, knuckles. 
Knock on, C, proceed, continue, go on. 
Knock onder, G, to resign, give precedence. 
Knonnot, C, Knaanat, S.W. " I knonnot" — I do not know. 
Knop, C, a small tub. 
Knoppy, C, lumpy, knotty. " ' Knoppy road,' as the man said 

when he stumbled over a cow.' 1 
Knowe, G, a rounded hill. 
Knurrt, C, stunted, not freely grown. Teut. knorr, a knot in 

Knyfle, C, N.E, to steal trifles. 
Kurnel, G, kernel. 

Kye, C, Keye, N.E, Cawws, S.W, cows, kine, cattle. 
Kype, C, S.W, Keype, N.E, to jibe, insinuate ; to die. " T' oald 

horse is gaan to kype." 
Kyte, C, S.W, Keyte, N.E, the belly. 
Kysty, C, ill tempered. 

Laa, S.W, low, law. Lan. 

Laal, C, Lyle, S.W, Leyle, N.E, little. 

~Laa\ set by, G, of little esteem or repute. 

Laa man, S.W, man of law, an attorney, Lan. 

Labber, C, to splash in water. 

Laddie, G, ladle. 

Laggin, the end of the stave outside the cask or tub. 

Laghter, C, N.E, a brood of chickens, or other fowls. 


Laird, N.E, landowner, yeoman. Sco. 

Lake, C, S.W, Leayk, N.E, play. Sax. lacan. 

Lakin, C, a child's toy. 

Lai, Lallup, C, to loll or hang out the tongue derisively. 

Lampers, C, Lamprey eels ; a swelling in a young horse's 

Lamplugh hokeys, C, a breed of red and black cattle with 

white faces, peculiar to Lamplugh ; now extinct, 1857. 
Lamplugh puddin, C, a mess of toasted biscuits steeped in hot 

ale with spices, a posset. 
Lan, N.E, land. 
Land, C, S.W, to arrive, to reach home. "He landit in yister 

Lang, G, long. 

Lang back't settle, C, a wooden sofa. 
Langel, C, N.E, Langket, S.W, a woollen fetter for sheep. 
Langer east shorter west, C, a deficiency in one part is com- 
pensated by abundance in another part. 
Langket, G, the surname of Longcake. 
Lang on, C, because of. " It was o' lang o' him 'at aa fell int' 

Lang sen, C, S.W, Langsyne, Langseyne, N.E, long since. 
Langsom, G, tedious. " It 's a langsom rwoad ower Hutton 

Lang windit, G-, prolix. 
Lant, G, S.W, Lanter, N.E, the game of loo. " At lanter the 

caird lakers sat i' the loft." — Anderson. 
Lant, Lanty, G, Lancelot. 
Lantern leets, C, the horn substitutes for glass. 
Lantit, G, defeated, disappointed. 
Lant lakers, C, Lanters, N.E, players at loo. 
Lap up, C, to desist, to give up. 
Lap sidit, C, unequally balanced. 
Lapstan, C, the stone held on the shoemaker's lap for beating 

his leather upon. 
Larn, G, learn — also to teach. " He lams his scholars to write." 
Larrap, C, to beat. 


Lash, C, to comb ; a comb ; an attack of diarrhoea ; to whip ; 

the cord at the end of a whip. 
Lash cwom, C, S.W, Lash keam, N.E, a coarse comb. 
Lash oot, C, to use a comb ; N,E, to hand forth. 
Lat, G, lath. 
Latch lug't, C, Leav lug't, N.E, ears hanging, instead of being 

erect. The N.E. epithet is very appropriate — the ears 

hang like leaves. 
Lave, N.E, the rest. Sco. 
Lavrick, N.E, the lark. 

Laws ! Loze ! C, expressions of astonishment. 
Layte, G, to seek. " Gang an layte t' kye heamm." Norw. leita. 
Laytin, C, the circuit invited to a funeral, &c. 
Leadd, G, load, lade ; to lift out water with a bucket or dish. 
Leaff, G, Lwoaf, N.E, loaf. Sax. hlafe, bread. 
Leah, Sye, C, S.W, Sye, N.E, a scythe. Dan. lee, 
Leamm, G, lame. 
Leann, N.E, alone. 
Leapp, C, S.W, Lap, N.E, leapt. 
Leass, C, lace ; to thrash or beat. 
Leasst cup, G, tea and spirits. 
Leatth, Leeath, G, a barn; N.E, bern. 
Leatt, G, late. 

Leatth, G, loath. " She was leatth to gang away." 
Leaydy, Leddy, N.E, lady. 
Lebn, C, Leeven, N.E, eleven. 
Ledder, G, leather, leathern. 

Ledder-te-spetch, C, a rustic method of heavy dancing. 
Ledder heed, C, a blockhead. 
Ledge, G, allege. " He ledges it was still seah." 
Lee, G, lie. 
Leear, G, liar. 
Leeas, S.W, lease. Lan. 
Leeav, S.W, leave. Lan. 
Leed, C, N.E, Leead, S.W, lead (metal). 
Leed, C, Leead, S.W, to lead, to cart. " He 's leedan lime." 

In former times horses were conducted or led with halters 


when at work; and the term "to lead" still remains, 

though the horses are now driven. 
Lee-ko, C, look out — a term used at hand-ball play. 
Leem oot, C, Leeam, S.W, to drop out like ripe nuts. " Ay, 

lads ! leukk yonder for brown leemers ! " 
Leet, G, light. 
Leetnin, G, lightning. 

Leetnin afoor death, C, a lucid interval preceding death. 
Leet on, C, to meet with. " Aa leet on him at' cross rwoads." 
Leets, C, Leyghts, N.E, lungs. 
Leetsam, G, gay, cheerful, agile, lightsome. 
Leethat, C, Lightfoot, Lewthwaite. 
Leeve, G, live. 
Leeve teall, Leef teall, C, easy to sell or dispose of, easy to turn 

to account. 
Leggan away, C, walking quickly. 
Lek, C, to leak. " That tin leks." 
Lekkar, G, liquor. 
Lekshin, G, election. 
Lenth, G, length. 

Lep, C, Wap, C, N.E, a bundle of straw. 
Lert, C, to jerk, to pitch a light article out of the hand. 
Let on, G. " Niwer let on " — don't speak of it. 
Let wit, G, to pretend. " Doont let wit " — seem as if you did 

not see or know. 
Let leet intuit, G, to expose, to disclose. 
Letten, C, N.E, let, 
Leudge, C, an entrance lodge ; to lodge or deposit. " He leudgt 

his goold in t' bank." 
Leuff, N.E, the palm of the hand. 
Leugh, N.E, laughed. 
Leukk, C, N.E, Leeak, S.W, look. 
Leukk tull am, C, attend him, keep an eye on him. 
Leumm, G, loom. 
Leuv, N.E, love.* Sco. 

* The word " love" is seldom heard in central or south west Cumberland. 
Its influence is felt and fully understood as in all other parts, but the word 
is only spoken in hallowed reverence. 


Ley, Lea, Gr, arable land. Verstegan, writing on the surname 
of Lesley, says — "Legh, Ley, or Lea, a ground that lieth 
unmanured and wildly overgrown." And, " a combat being 
once fought in Scotland, between a gentleman of the family 
of Lesleyes and a Knight of Hungary, wherein the Scottish 
gentleman was victor, in memory thereof, and of the place 
where it happened, the ensuing verses doe in Scotland yet 

"Betweene the lesse-ley, and the mare, 
He slew the Knight, and left him there." 

Ley hay, Gr, hay grown on ley ground. The term is now 

applied to ryegrass and clover hay as well. 
Leycence, N.E, licence. Sco. 
Leyfe, N.E, life. Sco. 
Leyke, N.E, like. Sco. 
Leyme, N.E, lime. Sco. 
Lib, C, to castrate, Belg. lubhe, to geld. 
Lick, G, to beat or thrash. See Browt. 
Lick, to lig lick on, Gr, to discover, to see. " Aa could nivver 

lig lick on am." 
Lick for smack, C, quick together. 
Lickly, Leykly, N.E, likely. 

Lickplate, C, a person who tries to gain favour by mean services. 
Lift, C, a trick at cards. 

Lift, Gr, help, assistance. " He '11 give us a lift at a pinch." 
Lig, Gr, to lie down. Sax. lig an, to lie. 

" Ne what hounds liggen on the floure adoun." — Ch. 
Liggan upon, Gr, very urgent. " It 's liggan upon, an' mun be 

Liggers, C, growing wood notched and laid along a hedge. 
Liggy boddam, Liggy, C, the loach fish. 
Lig in, C, a mining term — to dig below the foundation. 
Lig in tul am, C, thrash him well. 
Lig-ma-lag, C, abundance, too much. 
Liggybed, C, a person addicted to late rising. 
Light on, C, to rely on, trust, depend on. " Aal light on tha to 

pay 't." 


Like, C, S.W, Leyke, N.E, in danger of, urgency. "It's like to fo'." 

Like, C, S.W, likely. " Ize be like to come." 

Liker, C, S.W, Leyker, N.E, more likely. 

Lilt, G, to sing merrily without using words. 

Lim, G, a mischievous person, limb. 

Limmish, G, inclined to mischief. 

Limber, C, flexible, supple. 

Limmers, S.W, the shafts of a cart. Scand. limar, branches. 

Lin, G, linen, Lin, N.E, a precipice. " He fell ower the lin." 

Line of eggs, C, the course of laying eggs by a fowl. 

Ling cowe, G, S.W, Heather cowe, N.E, a stem of heather. 

Linnert, C, the linnet. 

Linstywunsty, C, cloth of linen and woollen mixed. 

Lish, C, S.W, Leesh, N.E, supple, active. Lishlike, well made. 

Lisk, C, S.W T , the flank or groin. Dan. lyske. 

Lissen, G, listen. 

List, G, to enlist. " Gwordy's listit for a soldier." 

Lister, C, S.W, Leester, N.E, a pronged and barbed fish spear. 

Listin, C, woollen selvages. 

Listy, C, strong and active, ready-handed. Fr. leste, nimble. 

Livver, C , to deliver. 

Lo, C, N.E, Laa, S.W, low, law. 

Loave ! Loavin days ! C, exclamations of surprise or delight. 

Lob, C, to leap or run heavily, to throw in quoiting fashion. 

Lock, G, an undefined quantity. " A lock o' money." " A girt 

lock." " A laal lock." 
Lockin gowan, C, the globe flower — Trollius Europczus. 
Lofe, C, Laaf, S.W, Lwoaf, Loff, N.E, offer, opportunity, chance. 

C, " He 'd nea lofe o' selling." N.E, " Twea to yin ov a loff:' 
Loft, G, an upper room. Scand. loftr. 
Log, C, still, quiet. "He can swum i' log watter." Sax. ligan, 

to lie. 
Lonnin, G, lane. 
Lonter, C, loiter. " He lontert amang t' nut trees till it was 

ower leatt to gang to t' skeull, an' gat well paikt for 't." 
Looance, C, allowance. 
Look, C, Lowk, S.W, to weed corn, &c. 


Loot, Lowt, G, a clumsy or stupid lad. " He 's nought bit a 
girt lowt, aa tell tha." 

Loppen, G, leapt. " Oor horse hes loppent foald yat." 

Loppert, G, milk turned sour and curdled, is loppert. Teut. 
laben, to curdle. 

Lot, G, to allot. " He was lottit for a soldier, hit he peel't off 
an' gat clear." 

Lounder, C, N.E, to heat. 

Lounderer, C, N.E, a large one. 

Lowder, C, the foundation supporting the millstones. This 
term is used in the records of Greystoke Castle, relating to 
Threlkeld Hall mill. 

Lowe, G, flame, blaze ; the torch used by fish poachers. " Aaz 
gaan a lowing to-neet, wilta gang?" Dan. lue, to blaze. 

Lownd, C, Lown, N.E, calm, still. Clock lownd, still as a clock. 
The downy seeds of the dandelion, when on the stem, are 
collectively called a clock. They are blown off with a slight 
puff, and when the wind is so still as not to disturb these 
seeds it is said to be " clock lownd." Scand. logn, serenity 
of the atmosphere. 

Lownd side, G, the sheltered side. 

Lowpy dike, C, a cow, &c, addicted to leaping hedges, a husband 
of unfaithful habits. 

Lowse, G, loose. 

Lowsely, Lowseish, C, diminutives of loose. 

Lowze, G, to untie. 

Lowze out o' gear, C, to unyoke, to desist. 

Luck of Edenal, G, an ornamented glass cup preserved at Eden- 
hall. The well-being of the house is traditionally ascribed 
to the safe preservation of this fairy relic* 

Luck o' Munkister, S.W, a glass cup preserved at Muncaster 
castle. This cup was presented by Edward VI. on his visit 
to the castle in 1641, and is carefully preserved as an heir- 
loom associated with the fortunes of the house. 

Lufter, C, abundance, crowd. " A heall lufter o' fwok com frae 

* See "The Luck of Edenhall," by the Rev. B. Porteus. 


Lug, G, the ear, the handle of a pail or jug, &c. ; to pull the 

hair, &c. 
Luggish, G, luggage. 
Luksta, C, look thou. 

Lurry, C, N.E, to hound eagerly, to hurry, persecute. 
Lutha, C, look thou, or listen thou. 
Lu warm, G, lukewarm. 
Lword, C, S.W, Laird, N.E, lord. 
Lwoze, C, lose. 
Lya noo ! C, listen ye, now ! 
Lyer, C, layer, stratum, meal in the broth. 
Lyery, C, bullfleshed. 
Lysta! C, listen thou. 

Lytel, C, Leytel, N.E, the surname of Little. 
Lythy, N.E, thick fluid. 
Lyve, Leve, G, as soon, prefer. " I 'd as lyve hev that as tudder." 


Ma, G, me. 

Maa, S.W, N.E, to cut with a scythe, to mow. 

Maap, S.W, mope. 

Maapment, S.W, blundering. 

Maary (Abbey Holm), Mary. 

Maddle, G, to talk incoherently, to doat. 

Maff, Maflin, C, a simple person. 

Maffle, G, to blunder, to mislead. 

Mailin, N.E, a farm. Sco. 

Mairt, N.E, the fat cow killed at Martinmas. In the last cen- 
tury it was a rare circumstance to slaughter a fat beeve at 
any season but in November, and in some districts rarely 

Maister, C, N.E, Mester, S.W, master, mister. 

Maister man, G, a husband. 

Mak, Meakk, C, S.W, Mek, N.E, make, sort. " Aa\ turn my 
back ov o't mak o' them." 

Mak a pocr mouth, C, to endeavour to excite compassion. 

Mak on, C, hurry on. 


Mak on him, C, encourage him. 

Mak count on, C, to calculate on. 

Mallin, C, a dusting mop, an untidy woman. 

Man, Gr, a conical pillar or pike of stones erected on the top of 

a mountain. " Such cones are on the tops of all our 

mountains, and they are called men." — Coleridge. 
Mander, C, N.E, to maunder, to talk confusedly. 
Mangrel, G-, mongrel. 
Manner, C, Mainer, N.E, manure. 
Mannish, C, S.W, manage. 
Mant, N.E, to stutter. 
Man thy sel, Gr, act like a man. 

Mankeen bull, C, S.W, a mad hull, a bull given to attack people. 
Mappen, Mapm, C, S.W, may happen, mayhap. 
Marcy, Gr, mercy. 
Marra, G, to match, a partner, an equal, marrow. Ir. mar, like 

Marra to bran, C, much alike, a match for, equal to. 
Marraless, Gr, not alike, not having a partner. 
Marraz, Gr, two alike. 
Mare, Mearr, G, more. 

Marry, C, verily. " Wey marry dudda " — verily he did. 
Marry come up ! C, an interjection sometimes used on the 

receipt of ludicrous news. 
Martenmas, C, S.W, Martlemas, Mairtinmas, N.E, Martinmas. 
Marvel, C, marble. 

Mash, C, a mess ; to bruise, to crush. 
Mass, C, Mask, N.E, to infuse. " Mass t' tea, Biddy." Ir. 

measg, to mix. 
Masselton batch, C, a sack of mixed grain ready for being 

Mastel, C, a part of an arable field never ploughed. 
Mastis, Masty, Gr, mastiff. 
Massycree, Gr, massacre. 
Matterable, C, of consequence, important. " Ought he does 

izzent matterable." 
Matterless, Gr, unimportant. 


Matters, G, " nea girt matters " — nothing to boast of. 

Mawk midge, N.E, the flesh fly or blue bottle. 

Mayzle, C, S.W, Mayze, N.E, to stupify. " She was so mased 

in the see." — Ch. 
Mayzelt, C, S.W, Mayzt, N.E, stupified. 
Mayzlin, G, a simpleton. 
Meadd, G, made. 
Meakk, C, S.W, Mek, N.E, make. 
Meakk on, G, to be kind to. 

Meakk out, G, to progress. " How is he meakkan out ? " 
Meall, G, a meal. 

Meall o milk, G, the milk given by a cow at one milking. 
Mealy mouth't, G, using soft words hypocritically; a bay or 

brown horse with a light-coloured muzzle ; a soft spoken 

Meann, G, mane. 
Mearr, Mair, G, more. 
Measst, C, S.W, Maist, N.E, most. 
Measson, G. Mason. 
Meat heall, C, N.E, Meeat heall, S.W, healthy, having a regular 

Meawrw, G, Maaw, N.E, the mew or cry of a cat. 
Mebby, G, it may be. 

Med, Mud, C, S.W, Meeght, Meet, N.E, might. 
Meddent, Muddent, C, S.W, Meightent, E.N, might not. 
Meean, S.W, mean. Lan. 

Meeda, C, N.E, Midda, S.W, meadow. Sax. meda. 
Meen, C, to moan, bemoan. A horse walking lame is said to 

meen the lame foot. 
Meer, G, mare. 
Meerish, G, effeminate. 
Meer-stan, C, a landmark of stone. 
Meg-wi-menny-feet, C, Meg-wi-menny-teazz, S.W, the creeping 

crowfoot plant — Ranunculus repens. 
Mekkin, Seggin, C, S.W., the yellow flag — Iris Pseudacorus. 
Mel, 0, meddle. "He'll nowder mell nor mak" — he will not 



Mel, G, a mallet; the last cut of corn in the harvest field. This 
last cut is commonly platted, enclosing a large apple, and 
hung up in the farm kitchen till Christmas day, when the 
corn is given to the best cow, and the apple to the oldest 
servant on the farm. 
Mel, query, a mountain standing alone, as Melfell, Melbrek, &c. 
Melder, C, the quantity of meal ground at one time. 
Mel supper. See Kern supper. 
Mend, C, S.W, Men, N.E, mend, amend. 
Meng, N.E, to renew. 

" Here, lanleady, some mair shwort ceaks, 
An meng us up thar glasses." 

Stagg's " Rosley Fair." 

Mennom, C, minnow. Fr. menu, small. 

Menny, C, Manny, S,W, Monny, N.E, many. 

Menseful, G-, hospitable, generous, liberal. " A menseful swort 

of a body." 
Meooldy, C, mouldy. 
Meoor, Mure, N.E, moor. 
Merrybegot, G, a bastard. 

Mess, G, confusion. " Hez he meadd a mess on 't." 
Mess ! Mex ! Amex ! oaths and affirmations. " Mess ey,' 

" Mess indeed," — truly. 
Meudd, C, S.W, mud, mood. 
Meiinn, C, N.E, Mooan, S.W, the moon. Persons subject to 

extreme variations of temper are said to be " owder at t 1 

meun or t' middin still." 
Mew, Moo, G, a corn or hay mow. 

Mewburnt, C, Mewbrunt, N.E, overheated in the mow or stack. 
Mewstead, C, N.E, Mawwsteead, S.W, a place where a mow 

stands ; a mow. 
Mewtle, C, the cow or ewe mewtles when she yearns over her 

newly dropped young and utters a low sound of fondness. 
Mey, Meyne, N.E, my, mine. Sco. 
Meyre, N.E, mire. Sco. 
Mezzles, C, S.W, Mizzles, N.E, measles. 
Mezzer, C, S.W, Mizzer, N.E, measure. 


Mickle, G, Muckle, N.E, Mitch, S.W, much. (Micel or Mikel. 

We use for it in the south parts of England the Spanish 

word Much. — Verstegan.) Muck el. — Spenser. 
Middin, G, dung heap. "Lazy middin" — a lazy and dirty 

Middin sump, C, Middin pant, S.W, N.E, a sumph or pool 

supplied by the drainage of the dung heap. 
Milker, G. A cow that gives plenty of milk is a " top milker." 
Milkas, G, dairy, milkhouse. 
Milkin hill, C, a dry and slightly elevated open place, near the 

farm house, where the cows were milked formerly. The 

name is still common in some of the central parishes. 
Milkin ring, C, a circle of overhanging trees or bushes, usually 

of holly, within which the cows were milked in hot weather. 

Few of these now remain. There is one at Causeway 

Foot, near Keswick (1858). 
Milk hannel, C, a larger pail, into which the milk cans are 

emptied by the milkers. 
Milkness, C, a dairy of cows. " We 've a girt milkness this 

year" (or, t' year). 
Millreet, G, millwright. 
MilL-sucken. C, bound by tenure to carry corn to be ground at 

the manorial mill. 
Mily, S.W, Miles. " Mily Jackson o' Hezzel Heead." 
Mimp, C, to talk primly or mincingly. 

Min, G, man. Only pronounced so when speaking familiarly. 
Mind, C, S.W, Meynd, N.E, remember. " Mind an' think on." 

" He duzzent mind " — he does not care. Ang-Sax. mynan. 
Mirk, G, dark. Ang.-Sax. mire. A house in Bassenthwaite is 

called Murkholme. 
Mis-co, C, to mis-call or mis-name, to verbally abuse. 
Miscanter, C, to miscarry ; a defeat. 
Mislikken, N.E., to compare disrespectfully, to neglect or forget. 

" Divvent mislikken noo." 
Mismay, C, Mismave, N.E. This term is used negatively, to 

express absence of fear. " Our cowt met t' soldiers, an 

nivver mismayt his-sel." 


Mistakken, Misteann, G, mistaken. 

Mittens, Gr, woollen gloves or bags for the hands. See pwok 

Mizert, Meyzer, N.E, miser. 

Mizzle, C, Hadder, N.E, small rain. See Hadder. 
Moam, C, mellow, soft. 
Moithy, E, moist. 

Moke, C, Maak, S.W, N.E, maggot. Scand. madk. 
Molligrubs, C, bad temper, imaginary ailments, in the sulks. 

" She 's in t' molligrubs to-day." 
Moold, C, Mawld, S.W, to cast in a mould. 
Mooldit cannels, C, mould candles. 
Moortidy, Mosschilper, Lingbird, C, Mosscheeper, N.E, the 

ground lark. 
Moose, C, N.E, Mooas, Mawse, S.W, mouse. 
Moot, C, N.E, moult, and N.E, to mention. 
Mooter, C, N.E, multure, mill toll. 
Mooth, C, N.E, Mawth, S.W, mouth. 
Moresby Ho' fwok, C, people of quality, court cards. 
Morgidge, Gr, mortgage. 

Mortal, G-, very. An indefinite term, as " mortal lang," " mor- 
tal short," and also used instead of an oath to give force to 

an expression. 
Mote, C, Maat, S.W, malt. 

Motester, C, Maatster, S.W, maltster, a maker of malt. 
Mowd, Gr, soil, mould. 
Mowdywarp, C, S.W, Mowdywark, N.E, the mole. Scand. 

Mowerkin, C, Mockerkin village. 
Moydert, C, N.E, bewildered, confused. " He gat moydert in a 

snow-storm an torfert." 
Much, C, sometimes used to express doubt. " It 's much if he 

gangs at o' now." 
Muck hack, Gr, a three-toothed drag for drawing manure from 

the cart. 
Muck hots, G, panniers for conveying manure on horseback, 

and N.E, heaps of muck or lime in the field. 


Mucky, C, dirty, mean, cowardly. 

Mudder, C, S.W, Mither, N.E, mother. " At the kinges modres 
court." — Ch. 

Mug, C, a small drinking pot. 

Muggy weather, C, damp and misty. Scand. mugga, sl mist. 

Mug sheep, C, the white-faced breed from which the improved 
Leicester breed originated. 

Mull, C, to crumble; peat dust, anything crumbled. Ang.-S. 
my I, dust. 

Mull't yal, C, ale mulled with eggs and spices, to be drunk while hot. 

Mun, Gr, must. 

Munnet, Moont, C, and Menna, N.E, Mooat, S.W, must not. 

Munge, C, Moonge, N.E, to grumble in a low tone. 

Murky, C, dark, gloomy. 

Murl, C, N.E, to crumble with the fingers. "As marly as 
a short cake." 

Murry, G, merry. 

Murryneet, Merryneet, G-, Tansy,* N.E, a rustic merrymaking 
to benefit a public house. 

Mush, C, to crush ; dry refuse. 

Mushamer, C, mushroom. 

Mustert, G-, mustard. 

Musty, C, sour-looking, gloomy. 

Muwan, G, moving. 

Mwornin, C, N.E, Morrnin, S.W, morning. 

Mwotes, C, dust, motes. 

Mwoze, Mwozes, C, S.W, Moses. 

Myld, C, Meyl, N.E, mile. 

My sarty ! C, an exclamation of surprise. 

Myter, C, to crumble or reduce to decay. Stone that decom- 
poses by the action of the weather myters away. 


Nab, C, to arrest, to catch suddenly. Dan. nappe. 
Nag, C. S.W, Naig, N.E, a horse. 

* Sullivan. 


Napb, G, the nave of a wheel. 
Nar, G, Ner, N.E, near. 

" To kirk the nar, to God more far."— Spenser. 
Narder, Nar-er, Nearder, G, and Nerrer, N.E, nearer. 
Nar gangan, C, S.W, Nar gaan, N.E, near-going, miserly. 
Narvish, Gr, nervous. 
Nash, Nashy, C, S.W, Nesh. N.E, fragile, brittle, tender. Sax. 

nese, tender. 
Natch, C, N.E, notch. 
Natterable, C, N.E, natural. 
Nattle, Knattle, G, to make a light and quick knocking. " He 

knattelt at t' window, and she gave a laal knattle on t' flags 

wid her heel." 
Natty, C, neat. 
Nayber row, C, S.W, Nyber row, N.E, neighbourhood, alike 

with neighbours or others. 
Nayder, Nowder, Nyder, Gr, neither. Chaucer, nowther. 
Nayder dee nor dowe, C, in a doubtful way of recovery. 
Nay-say, G, refusal, denial. 

Nay than ! C, an exclamation of wonder, or doubt, or sympathy. 
Nea, Neah, C, S.W, Neaa, S.W, Na&, Nee, N.E, no, nay. 
Nea girt cracks, Nea girt things, C, S.W, nothing to boast of. 
Neakkt, G, naked. 
Neamm, G, name. 
Neavvel, G, navel. 

Neb, G, the bill of a bird, nose. Sax. nebbe. 
Necklath, G, neckcloth, handkerchief. 
Neddert, C, Nithert, N.E, withered, not in a thriving state. 
Neeadles, S.W, needles. Lane. 
Need fire, G, fire originated by the friction of Wood, and carried 

quickly from house to house, for the purpose of passing 

cattle through the smoke, to prevent murrain and other 

epidemics. In use so late as about 1841. 
Neef, C, Neeaf, S.W, Neeve, N.E, the clenched fist. Scand. 

Neer ak, C, never mind. 
Neer-do-weel, G, a graceless person who never does well. 


Neest, N.E, next. Sco. 

Neet, C, S.W, Neeght, N.E, night. 

Neevy nack, G, a boyish mode of casting lots. The boy says — 

"Neevy neevy nack, 
Whether hand wilta tak — 
T' topmer or t' lower." 

Neeze, G, sneeze. Dan. nyse. 

Ner, G, nor. 

Nessle, C, nestle. " Neslan abed till neunn." 

Neukk, C, N.E, Neak, S.W, nook, corner. 

Neunn, C, N.E, Nean, S.W, noon, dinner-time. 

Newdles, G, a trifling, silly person. 

Newdelt, G-, bewildered. 

Newe, S.W, new (pronounced "nay-oo"). 

Neyce, N.E, nice. Sco. 

Neyne, N.E, nine, Sco. 

Nieberheed, N.E, neighbourhood. 

Nicker, S.W, to laugh in an under tone ; N.E, to neigh, to laugh 

loudly. Scand. gndka. 
Niggarts, C, Neegars, N.E, upright cast-iron plates, used for 

contracting the fire-place; and Niggart plates, sheet iron 

plates between the niggarts and the hobs, 
Nigler, C, a busy, industrious person or animal. 
Nichol, C, N.E, Nikka, S.W, Nicholas. " Nikka Stibnson." 
Nim, C, to walk or run with short and quick steps. 
Nimmel, C, nimble. 

Nin, C, Neean, S.W, Neann, N.E, none. 
Ningnang, G, a silly person. 
Ninny-hammer, C, a foolish person. 
Nip up, C, to pilfer, to take up quickly. 
Nitch, N.E, gang, family, or set. "They're a bad nitch, the 

heall lot o' them." 
Niwer let on, Nivver let wit, G, take no notice. 
Nob, Nobby, C, childish terms for the nose. 
Nobbet, G, nothing but, only. 
Nnockles, G, knuckles. 
Noddle, C, the head ; to nod. 


Nog, C, S.W, a handle to fix on the shaft of a scythe. 

Noggin, G, the eighth of a quart measure. 

Noggy, N.E, coarse thread; Noggywife, a maker of coarse 

Noo, C, N.E, Naww, S.W, now. 
Nop, C, to crop, to nip the ends off gooseberries, &c. 
Nope, C, to strike on the head. 

Norration, G, oration, a noisy conversation, great noise. 
Nottable, G, clever at trifling manipulations. 
Nowt, C, N.E, Naitfwt, S.W, nothing. 
Nowt, N.E, cattle. " Tarn, gan an fodder the nowt, my man." 

Scand. naat, an ox. 
Nowt at dowe, C, not over good, nothing of importance. See 

Nowt o' t' swort, G, nothing of the sort, not true. 
Nub, Nudge, G, to jog secretly ; to draw attention. 
Nuckelt, Newkelt, G, newly calved, 
Num, G, benumbed, clumsy. 
Num luck, G, by chance, and not by ability. 
Num thooms, G, a clumsy person, an indifferent workman. 
Nut, C, Nit, S.W, not. 

Nut a shaft for 't, C, S.W, unable to accomplish it. 
Nut reet, Nut varra reet, Nut o' theer, C, idiocy. 
Nut to ride a watter on *, C, not to be depended upon. 
Nuvvelty, G, novelty. 
Nwote, G, note. 
Nwotion, G, notion, idea. " Oor lad hez a nwotion o' gangan 

to t' sea." 
Nwotish, Nwotis, G, notice. 
Nwoze, G, nose. 
Nyfel, G, to pilfer or take by retail. 

* Some saddle horses have a propensity to lie down in crossing waters, 
seemingly with a view to get rid of their riders, or because they are seized 
with colic, and such are " not to ride watters on." 



0' 5 C, Aa, S.W, N.E, all, of. 

0' maks, G, all sorts. 

0' ont, C, all of it. 

Oaf, C, a blockhead, an idiot. 

" Some silly doting brainless calf, 
That understands things by the half, 
Says that the fairy left the aulf, 
And took away the other." 


Oald, C, Aald, S.W, Oal, Aa\, N.E, old. 

Oald bat, C, N.E, the usual state or condition. 

Oa, Oan, C, Aa, S.W, .NE, owe, own. "Who oas this?" 

Oald fashint, G, and Oadfarrant, N.E, old fashioned, sly, saga- 
cious. Dan. erfaren, experienced. 

Oald shoe, G, the old custom of propitiating good-luck, by 
throwing an old shoe at a person or wedding party, is still 
occasionally in use. 

Oan, C, own ; to visit " Ye nivver oan us noo." 

Oblege, G, oblige. 

Obstropolous, C, unruly, turbulent, obstreperous. 

Obzarve, G, observe. 

Od bin ! ^ 


Od dangt' ! 

Od rot ! 

Od rabbet! 

Od sink ! 

Od white ! 

Od white leet on ! 

Ods bobs ! 

Ods breed ! 

Ods winje ! 

Ods wuns ! 

Ods wunters ! 

Ods wux ! 

Odzooks ! 

Odzookers ! 

\ G, oaths, or their substitutes. 


Odments, C, scraps, odds and ends, things worthless, &c. 
Ods, G. "What ods?" — what difference does it make? what 

does it matter ? 
Offish, G, office. 
Off his bat, G-, out of health. 

Offskeum, C, the refuse, the worst, the offscourings. 
Oft, C, S.W, Offen, N.E, often. 
Ofter, C, S,W, Offener, N.E, oftener. 
Oil o' hezzel, C, a sound drubbing, 
Okart, C, N.E, Aak&vt, S.W, awkward, 
Olas, C, -4alas, S.W, Jalwas, Aywas, O'gates, N.E, always. 
Omas, C, iamas, N.E, alms. In former times a handful of 

oatmeal or a slice of brown bread, in the country ; and in 

later times a halfpenny. 
Ome, C, Emmal, N.E, the elm tree. 
Omma, O'ma, C, on me, of me. 
On, Gr, upon. 
On a twitter, C, just on the edge. " Oor dog was within a 

twitter o' clickin t' hare." 
Onder, Gr, under. 

Ondermer, Gr, the one under the other. 
Onderneeath, S.W, underneath. 
Onnam, G, on him. 
OnSy C, puts on. "I ons wi t' poddish pot furst thing at 

Onstead, C, N.E, Onset, N.E, farm house and outbuildings, 

Onta, C, upon, unto, on to. 
Oo, Woo, C, N.E, Ooa, S.W, wool. 

" Tar-ry woo, tar-ry woo, 
Tar-ry woo is ill to spin; 
Card it weel. 
Card it weel, 
Card it weel ere you begin," &c. 

Old Song. 

Oofa, C, S.W, Ulpha township. Welsh gwylfa, a watch tower. 

Sax. ulph, help. 
Oomer, C, Hoomer, N.E, shade, to shade. 



: Oor, C, N.E, Awer, S.W, our, hour. 

Oor side, C, N.E, our part of the country. 

Oor wife, C, N.E, my wife (nearly obsolete). 

Oostan, S.W, Ulverston. 

Oot, C, N.E, Awte, S.W, out. 

Oot bye, N.E, not far off, on the fell, depasturing. Sco. 

Oot at elbaz, G, in declining circumstances. 

Ootener, C, a stranger or new comer. 

Ootgang, G-, a narrow strip of land connecting the common 
with the farm yard. 

Ootin, C, N.E, Awtin, S.W, a pleasure jaunt. (Outin, out. — 
Chaucer. ) 

Oot o' cue, C, N.E, out of health, not in a good humour. 

Oot o' geatt, C, N.E, out of the way, stored by. 

Oot o' t' way, C, N.E, uncommon, exorbitant. 

Oot ower, N.E, across the country. Sco. 

Oot powl't, C, beat, defeated. 

Oot rake, N.E, a free rake or way for sheep from the enclosures 
to the common. 

Oot ray, C, N.E, to exceed propriety. " Outrayen, to grow out- 
rageous." — Chaucer. 

Oot upotha! C, an interject] onal term of reproach. 

Ootweels, C, N.E, outcasts, refuse. " Outwell, to discharge." — 

Oppen, Opn, Opm, G, open. " Is t' winda opm? " 

Opnin, G, opening. 

Oppesat, C, opposite. 

Or, Er, G, are. 

Orchat, C, S.W, Worchat, N.E, orchard. 

O'riddy, C, ^tariddy, S.W, O'ruddy, Aariddy, N.E, already. 

Orndinner,* N.E, a lunch, — Brockett. 

Otha, G, of thee, on thee. 

Other guess, N.E, of another kind. 

Owder, Ayder, G, either. 

Ower, C, N.E, Oor, S.W, over. 

Owerance, C, guidance, governance, superintendance 
* Never heard the term.— W. D. 


Ower by, N.E, over the way. Sco. 

Owergit, C, overtake. 

Owerkessen, C, S.W, Owercassen, N.E, overcast. 

Ower kind, G, more intimate than is becoming. 

Owsen, G-, oxen. 

Owt, C, N.E, anything. 

Owts, C, N.E. "Is 't owts of a good an?" — Is it a pretty good 

one? This word is commonly used as an interrogatory. 

" Hez he gitten owts o' fish to-day ? " " Nay ; nought as is 

Owz, Aaz, N.E, owns. " Whee owz (or acts) this?" 
Oxters, G, armpits. 

Packs, Gr, heavy clouds, thunder clouds. " T' sky 's packy 

to-day, an' like thunner." 
Pad, Gr, a kind of saddle, made of canvas or carpeting stuffed 

with straw, and used with or without stirrups, now (1858) 

out of use. Pads of thin turf, girthed with hay ropes, 

have been in use in primitive ages. 
Paddock, C, Paddick, N.E, the frog or toad. 
Paddick rud or rid, N.E, the spawn of frogs and toads. 
Paddock steulls, C, N.E, all non-edible fungi. 
Pad-saddle, C, a composite article between pad and saddle, 

now out of use. 
Pad the hoof, G, to go on foot. 
Paiks, G, a boyish term for a thrashing. 
Paitrick, N.E, the partridge. Sco. 
Palterly, C, paltry. 
Pan an' speunn, C. When a child or young animal is brought 

up without being suckled, it is reared by the aid of a pan 

to warm the milk, and a spoon to feed from. 
Pangt, C, quite full. 
Pankeakk Teusday, C, Shrove Tuesday, on which day pancakes 

are made for dinner. 
Pan on wid, Pan on togidder, G, to associate, to pair ; query, 
from cooking in or eating from the same pan. 


Pant, G, a sump. 

Par, C, S.W, pair — sounded short, as in pat. 

Pardza, C, the village of Pardshaw. 

Parfet, G, and Perfit, N.E, perfect. " He was a veray par fit 

gen til knight." — Chaucer. 
Parjery, G, perjury. 
Parlish, C, S.W, wonderful, extraordinary, parlous. " A parlous 

boy : go to, you are too shrewd." — K. Rich. III. 
Parral, G-, peril. " It 's at te parral to strike." 
Parties, C, the globular droppings of sheep, &c. 
Pash,* C, N.E . " Wet as pash " — very wet. " A pashan shower " 

— a heavy and sudden shower. " Kotten as pash" — entirely 

Pate, G, the scalp, the head. " Aa\ crack thy pate." 
Pat, G, fit, correct. 

Patter, G, to beat quickly. " It patters an rains." 
Pattle, C, a plough scraper. 
Paw, C, the hand, and especially if dirty. " Keep yer dirty 

paws off." 
Pawky, N.E, too familiar, sly. 
Paww, C, to kick when in the last extremity. " He 5 J1 nivver 

■gaww mair " — he will never kick again ! — he 's dead ! 
Pay, G, to beat. 

Payt, C, Pee't, Pea'd, N.E, paid. 
Paze, Baze, C, to prise or force or lift with a lever. 
Peann, C. "0' in a peann" — thick set with weeds. A sheep 

is " o' in a peann" when its fleece is matted or felted with 

Peass eggs, G, dyed eggs at Easter time. 
Peasst, G, paste. 

Peazz, C, pace ; the raised approach for horses to an upper floor. 
Pedder, G, Pether, N.E, a pedlar; an attempt to foist an 

inferior article on a customer. " Doont pedder that rubbish 


* There is a distinction between a "pash" and a "splash" of rain. 
"Here's a wet day, John ! " "Ey, it dizzels an' dozzels an' duz." "Will it 
continue ? " " Nay, it may be a bit of a splash, bit it willent be a girt pash." 


Pee, C, S.W, to shut one eye on taking aim. 

Pee in yer oan pwok neukk, C, mind your own affairs, see how 
it applies to yourself. 

Peeas, S.W, peace. Lan. 

Peek, C, Peeak, S.W, to pry into secret matters. 

Peel, C, N.E, Peeal, S.W, to appeal, 

Peenjan, N.E, starving with cold. 

Peer, G, a pear ; appear. 

Peer, Peur, N.E, poor. 

Peerath, G, Penrith. 

Pee't, G, having only one eye. 

Peeat, S.W, peat. Lan. 

Peat hee, C, the height of a peat, about knee height. 

Peat mull, C, Peat coom, N.E, the dust and debris of peats 

Peat skeall, S.W, a house on the fell to store peats in. 

Peg, Gr, to thump ; a child's tooth. 

Peg away, G, go along, hurry on. 

Pegh, N.E, to pant. Sco. 

Pelk, Whelk, C, to beat— (? from pelt.) 

Pell mell, G, forcibly and quickly. 

Pelter, C, N.E, a large one. 

Pennerth, G, pennyworth. 

Pennysom, G, profitable by small items. 

Pennystans, C, N.E, stones used in pitching instead of pennies. 

Penlam, N.E, pendulum. 

Pensy, C, N.E, sickly, of weak appetite. 

Pent, G, paint. 

Pentas, C, S.W, penthouse, a roof fixed to the side of a wall. 
Common in the eighteenth century in farm yards, scarce 
in the nineteenth. 

Perlang, N.E, belong. " Whee perlangs this ?" 

Pettle, G, to occupy time over trifles. 

Pewder, C, Pewther, N.E, pewter. Large dishes and dinner 
plates of pewter succeeded wooden trenchers about the 
beginning of the eighteenth century, and were displaced 
by crockery early in the nineteenth century, 

Peye, N.E, pye. Sco. 

Peype, N.E, pipe. Sco. 
Pez, Pays, C, Peeaz, S.W, pease. 
Pick, C, N.E, pitch; to lift with a pitchfork, (fee- 
Pick or pitch dark, G-, entirely dark. 
Pick in yer aan pwok neukk, N.E, take your own, shift for 

Picnickety, N.E, exact in small matters, neat in dress. 
Pickle, C, a grain of corn. 

Picks, C, an old name for the diamond suit of cards. 
Pick t' cofe, C, S.W, abortion in cows. 
Piggin, C, a small wooden pail to hold about a pint, hooped 

like a barrel, and having a stave handle. 
Pig in, C, to nestle close, as pigs do. " Come, barns, pig in to 

bed wi' ya." 
Pike, G, the conical top of a mountain or hill, the peak, a 

pillar or high cairn erected on the top or point of a 

Pile, G, a blade of grass. " Ther izzent a pile o' girse to be 

seen on o' t' field." 
Piley, C, a white game fowl having some black feathers. 
Pilgarlic, C, a simpleton ; Peelgarlic, N.E, a tall, slender, 

starved girl. 
Pillion seat, G, a seat to fix behind the saddle, for a female to 

ride on. Out of use since about 1830. 
Pinchgut, G, a miserly person. 

Pincht, C, falling short. " He '11 be pincht to git it done.'' 
Pinion tied, G-, strong in opinion, obstinate. 
Pinjy, C, Penjy, N.E, of a complaining habit. 
Pinnert, C, shrivelled, lean, starved. 

Pin't into' t' hard yerth, C, the grass eat off to the bare ground. 
Pipe stoppel, G, a fragment of the shank of a tobacco pipe. 
Pissimers, Pisamoors, Pismudders, C, Pi.--Lmithers, N.E, pis- 
mires, ants. 
Plad, G, plaid. 

Plain as pikestaff, C, very distinct and evident. 
Plantin, G, a plantation. 
Plash, C, to trim the sides of a hedge. 


Plat, C, N.E, plot; a line of hay ready for cocking, a broad 

ridge of land. N.E, to walk heavily. 
Playster, G-, plaster. 
Pleague, N.E, plague. 
Pleass, G, place. 

Pled, G, pleaded. " He pled hard for his life." 
Pleeaz, S.W, please. Lan. 
Pleen, Pleyn, C, N.E, Pleean, S.W, to complain. 

" Gret -was the pitee for to here hem pleine." — Ck. 
Pleesant, N.E, pleasant. 
Pleezter, G, more pleased. 
Plennets, N.E, abundance. 

" Heavier now the tempest musters, 
Down in plennets teems the rain; 
Louder, aye, the whurlblast blusters, 
Sweepin owr the spacious plain." 

Stagg's Return. 
Plezzer, C, S.W, Pleeshur, Pleezer, N.E, pleasure. 
Plennish, G, to furnish a house or stock a farm. 
Plet, G, plat. 
Plivver, N.E, the plover. 
Plodge, N.E, to plunge, to wade in water. 
Plies, C, the foldings of garments. "We put on three ply o* 

flannin for a sare throat." 
Plote, C, to wade through thick and thin. 
Plook, G, Pleukk, N.E, a pimple on the face. 
Ploom, G, a plum. 
Plu, C, S.W, Plugh, N.E, plough. 

Plu co'-er, C, S.W, the driver of each pair of plough oxen or 
horses in the last century, usually a boy or stout girl, 
whose duty it was to steer the animals, to keep them 
moving steadily, and to bear patiently the scowls and 
reproaches, and occasionally the blows, of the irritated 
ploughman, when his want of skill caused a blunder in 
his performance. Such mishaps, being of frequent occur- 
rence, deterred the youngsters from going out to " co' t' plu." 
Plu-pattle, C, an implement used to clear the soil from the 

Plum, G, perpendicular. 

Pock-arr't, Pock-fret, C, Pock-err't, N.E, marked by small pox. 

Pod, C, to poke. 

Poddish, C, S.W, Parridge, N.E, pottage of oatmeal. The 

usual breakfast and supper of the farm servants over the 

greatest part of the county ; and, till lately, of the farmers 

and their families. 
Poddinger, C, porringer, a coarse earthenware pot, with a 

handle on one side. 
Pode, C, Apod, S.W, uphold. " Aa\ pode ta it 's true." 
Poik, C, to steal when playing at marbles. 
Pomes, C, the blossoms of the willow tribe. 
Poo, G, pull ; to pluck. 
Pooan, G, pulling. 

Pooder, C, Poother, N.E, Powder, S.W, powder. 
Pool, C, Poo, S.W, Peull, N.E, a pool or dub. 
Poo't, G, pulled, pull it. 
Pop, C, a dot. 
Pope, C, Paap, S.W, to walk as in the dark. "Popan an' 

Porpas, S.W, purpose. Yks. 
Porr, G, poker. 
Poss, C. "0' in a poss" — saturated with a liquid; N.E, to 

tread wet clothes, &c. "She was possan blankets in a 

Pot, C, S.W, Pat, N.E, has put, did put. 
Pote, C, Paat, S.W, to paw with the feet ; pawed. 
Pot 't, S.W, put it. 

Potteck, C, pocket (nearly out of use). 
Potter, Pottle, G, to trifle, to work without effect. 
Pow-cat, C, a fungus which grows in hedges and has an offensive 

smell, and "stinks like a pow-cat." 
Powe, C, a sump. 
Powl, C, N.E, Powe, S.W, pole. 
Powsoddy, G, an ale posset. 
Praytha, Pretha, C, praythee, prithee. 
Preen, C, to comb and dress the hair. Dut. prunen, to trim. 


Preeze, Priss, C, to press, to importune. "Now mak free, an' 
help yersels." " Aas warn ye we need na preezin" 

Prent, G-, print. Icel. prenta. 

Prentas, G, apprentice. 

Preuv, G, prove. 

Preyce, N.E, price. Sco. 

Preyde, N.E, pride. Sco. 

Preyme, N.E, prime. Sco. 

Prickers, G-, iron prongs fixed on the front of the grate, to toast 
oread or frizzle sausages, &c, upon. 

Pricky hack, C, the stickleback or thornback fish. 

Prig, G, to heat down in bargaining, to pilfer. 

Prin, preen, N.E, a pin. 

Priss, Pruss, Prush, C, S.W, Frudge, N.E, to press. 

Prize, C, to raise by lever power. 

Prod, G-, a thorn or splinter. 

Prod, Proddle, G, to poke with the end of a stick. 

Prog, Proag, C, provender to be eaten in the field. 

Proffer, G, offer, a tender of services. " He proffert to help us.'' 

Providance, C, a providing of victuals, &c. 

Pruzzently, Prizzently, C, presently. 

Pry, C, a very short bluish grass, difficult to catch with the 
scythe, a carex. " Yon field grows nowt bit bent and pry." 

Pubble, C, plump. Grain well fed is "pubble." 

Pucker, C, alarm, flutter. "In a sad pucker." 

Puckert, G, drawn together, like the mouth of a purse. 

Pult, C, a fat and lazy cat or woman. " A girt fat pult." 

Pultas, G, poultice. 

Pum, C, to pummel, to beat. 

Pummer, G, anything large. 

Pund, C, Pawwnd, S.W, Pun, N.E, pound. 

Punfoald, C, S.W, Prnifaal, N.E, pinfold. 

Punsh, G, to kick with the foot. 

Punsaby, S.W, Ponsonby. 

Purdy, C, a short and thickset person. 

Pursy, G, broken winded, asthmatic. 

Put on ! G, hurry on, go quick. 


Put out, G, ashamed, troubled, extinguished. " Nelly was sare 

put out about it." 
Putt, C, to butt with the head. 
Putty cow, a cow given to attack people. 
Puzzen, G-, poison. 
Pwoke, G, poke, a bag. " Niwer buy a pig in a pwok " — examine 

first ; take nothing on trust. 
Pwok mittens, C, gloves knit without the fingers being divided. 
Pworch, G-, porch. 
Pwort, N.E, port. 
Pwozy, Gr, a nosegay, posy. 
Pyannet, C, N.E, the peony plant. 
Pyat, G, the magpie. 
Pykthaa, S.W, Pickthall. Lane. 


Queerly, C, odd. " A rayder queerly swort ov a chap." 
Quentance, G-, acquaintance. 

Quern, C, an ancient hand-mill of stone. Sax. cweorn. 
Quest, C, the morning search for a hare by the scent of hounds. 

" Jwohn Peel questit a hare up Skiddaw side, an' put her 

off beside t' man." 
Queyte, Wheyte, N.E, quite. 
Quilt am ! C, beat him ! 
Quishin, Whishin, C, cushion. 
Quit, G-, acquit. Scand. quittr. 
Quittance, G, a receipt or acquittance, " Aa\ nit pay thee 

without thou '11 gimma a quittance." 


Babblement, C, the dregs of the people, rabble. 

Rackning, G, reckoning. Ang.-Sax. recnan, to reckon. 

Eafe, C, Ralph. 

Raff, C, an idle fellow. 

Raffish, C, of idle habits. 


Eaft, C, a large concourse. " A raft o' fwok." 

Bag, G, to rate, to scold, to reproach. Ir. rag, abuse. 

Kaggabrash, G, low people, vagabonds. 

Raggelt, C, an active young person of bad conduct. " An ill 

raggelt of a thing." 
Rageous, C, N.E, outrageous. 
Bake steel, C, S.W, Rake shank, N.E, the handle of a rake. 

" But that tale is not worth a rake-stele." — Ch. 
Rake, C, S.W, a journey. " He 's teann a rake ower to Kendal." 

Scand. reik. 
Rake, C, a mountain track across a steep ; to follow in line, as 

sheep do. 
Rakkan, G, reckon. 
Rakkeps, C, a game among boys. 
Rakkle, G, heedless, rash. 

"O! rakel honde, to do so foule amis." — Ch. 
Ram, G, to rush, to use force. " Ram at it." 
Ram, C, S.W, a strong fetid smell. "As ram as a fox." 
Ramman, G. "A ramman girt an "— a very large one. 
Rammer, G, a large one. 
Rammel, G, ramble. 

Rammel sleatt, C, a coarse kind of slate. 
Ramp, Wramp, a sprain or twist; to sprain. "He rampt his 

ankle at t' feutt bo' layk." 
Randit, C, streaked. This term is chiefly applied to butter 

when of two colours. 
Randy, C, a termagant. 
Rang, G, wrong. 
Rank, G, close together, numerous. "As rank as mice in a 

meal kist." 
Rannel tree, C, Rannel boke, Gaily boke, N.E, the beam on 

which the chimney crook hangs. 

" The rattans ran ower t' rannel tree." — Old Song. 

Rannigal, C, N.E, a masterful child or animal. 

Ranty, C, riotous, in high spirits, in a towering passion. " He 

was fairly ranty about it." Belg. randie, to rage. 
Bappak, C, a pet name for an unruly child. 


I Bap hopenny, C, a halfpenny worn smooth, a counterfeit. 
Eap out, C, to speak with rapidity. " He rapt out girt oaths as 

fast as a hen could pick." 
Kapt, C. A ragged sheep is said to be rapt (? unwrapped). 
Kash, C, brisk. Ang.-Sax. roesc. 
Kashleets, C, S."W, Beshleets, N.E, rushlights. 
Eatch, G, to ramble, to search vigorously. "Batchan about 

like a hungry hound." 
Eate, G, to whiten by bleaching on the grass. 
Eattan, G, rat. 

Bawwl, C, to grumble, to be quarrelsome. 
Eayder, C, S.W, Eayther, N.E, rather (ironically, very). 
Eayder o' t' wettest, C, very wet, &c. 
Eeadd, C, N.E, Eeudd, Ewode, N.E, rode, a spawn bed. 
Eeader (Scripture reader), Gr, the unordained clerical substitute, 

whose office ceased about 1740. " The reader of Newlands 

Chapel, who was admitted to deacon's orders (among many 

others), without examination, was by trade a tailor, dogger. 

and butter-print maker." — Southey. 
Eeakk, G, rake. 

Eeakk t' fire, C, to cover up the fire for the night. 
Eeamm, C, to roam, to talk wildly ; to covet or desire. " He 's 

olas reamman efter mair land." 
Eeann, C, a balk left for a boundary line in a common field. 
Eeapp, G, rope. 

Eear, C, rise, raise, rally, bring up. 
Eeass, G, race. 
Beatt, G, wrote. 
Beavv, Euv, C, tore, rove, rave. 
Eeavvel, C, Eyle, N.E, to use loose talk in a quick manner, to 

utter untruths, to entangle, to unravel the loops of knitting. 
Eeavven, G, the raven. 
Ee-azan, S.W, reason. Lane. 
Beazz, Eeuzz, Eiz, G, arise, arisen. 
Eecklin, G, the smallest of a litter of pigs, &c. 
Eedchester, G, register. 
Eeed, Eid, Eud, red. 


Reedent, C, irritable. 

Reek, G-, smoke. Scand. reykr. 

Reep o' cworn, G, a handful of corn in the straw, used as a 

bait to catch a horse with in the field. 
Reep up, G, to often refer to some unpleasant subject. 
Reest, C, S.W, Reesty, N.E, to be obstinate, to arrest. See 

Reestit, C, S.W, Reesty, N.E, rancid or rusty. 
Reet, G, right, a cartwright. Sax. treoiv-wyrhta, tree-right, or 

wood worker. 
Reggylar, Reglar, G, regular. 
Reggalate, G, regulate. 
Reivers, N.E, robbers on the borders. 
Reklas, C, the auricula plant. 
Render, G, to melt tallow, &c. 
Renky, C, lengthy. 
Res ait, G, receipt. 
Resh, Rus, N.E, the rush. Sco. 
Restles, Ridsteakks, Rest-stakes, C, Rudstowers, E, the stakes 

to which cattle are fastened in the stalls. 
Resto, C, at marbles, to change position to obtain a better 

chance of hitting an opponent's " taw." 
Reuff, G, roof. 

Heull, C, an unruly boy, colt, ox, &c. 

Reutle, C, to work underneath or in the ground as a pig does. 
Reutt, C, N.E, Reeat, S.W, root, to uproot, grub up. 
Reuvv, C, N.E, to unroof. " T' wind reuvt our haystack." See 

Reyde, N.E, ride. Sco. 
Reyme, N.E, rhyme. Sco. 
Rheumatiz, G, rheumatism. 
Rid, Rud, N.E, ridden. 
Ribbin, G, ribbon. 
Riddy, Ruddy, G, ready. 
Ride an' tie, G, riding by turns — the horseman dismounting 

and tying the horse up till the footman comes up to take 

his turn. 


Eife, C, plentiful. Sax. ryf, frequent, common. 

Riff-raff, C, dregs of the people, vagabonds. 

Rift, C, to belch, to win a trick with a trump card. 

Rig, G, ridge. Sax. hrig, sl back, and figuratively a lengthened 

hill or rising ground. Dan. ryg. " The stede's rigge under 

him brast." — Morte d' Arthur. 
Rig an fur, G, ridge and furrow, as stockings were formerly knit. 
Riggelt, Gr, an animal with one testicle in the loins. 
Riggin, G, ridging. 

" I divvent ken my oan house 
Until I see the rigging on 't : 
Cheese an' breed is my door cheeks, 
An' panceakks is the rigging on 't," 

Old Song. 
Rig reapp, Gr, the chain or rope resting on the cart saddle ; the 

back band. 
Rin, G-, run. 
Rinje, C, N.E, to rinse. 
Rip, G, to swear ; a reprobate ; a horse of the worst description. 

" An oald rip of a horse." 
Rip an' tear, C, N.E, to swear and vociferate violently. 
Risms, G, straws left on the stubbles. 
Rist, Rust, G, rest, repose. " Rist ye a bit." 
Rit, C, N.E, to cut the first line of a trench or drain, &c, with 

a spade ; a cart rut. 
Roantree, Witchwood, G, the mountain ash — Pyrus Aucuparia, 
Rock, G, the distaff. 
Roke, C, Raak, S.W, Rote, Rat, N.E, to scratch glass, &c, with 

a point. 
Roond, C, Rawnd, S.W, Roon, N.E, round, a circuit. " Aa'Y 

been a lang roond to-day." 
Roostit, C, rusted. 
Rost, C, S.W, Rwost, N.E, roast. 
Roughness, C, S.W, grass left for winterage. 
Rouse, C, to exhibit passion ; a drunken debauch. " The king 

doth wake to-night, and takes his rouse" — Hamlet. 
Rowe, C, Raa, S.W, N.E, raw. 
Rowe, C, N.E, roll. "He 's rowan amang plenty." 


Kowish, C, Raaish, S.W, N.E, rather raw. 

Rowk, G, the mist of the valleys. 

Eowl, G, roll. 

Rowm, S.W, room. Lan. 

Rowt, C, N.E, the prolonged roar of cows. " Rowtan at t' yat." 
Sax. hrutan. 

Rowth, C, N.E, abundance. "Rowth o' geer." 

Royster, Goyster, C, N.E, to vociferate, to bully. Icel. hrister. 

Rozzel, C, S.W, Rozzet, N.E, resin; to heat strongly before 
a fire. " Come in, an' rozzel thy shins a bit." 

Rub, G. rib. 

Rub t' rang way o' t' hair, C, to irritate. When the hair of cats 
or dogs is rubbed upwards, it causes angry feelings. 

Ruck, C, the chief part, the majority. 

Ruckle, C, a crowd, a great number. 

Ruckshin, C, riot, disturbance, (? eruption.) 

Ruffelt sark, C, a frilled shirt. The grandfather of the com- 
piler of this was called out as a cavalry or yeomanry 
soldier in 1745, and, like his neighbours, wore a check 
linen shirt with white frills on the breast, then called 
a " cranky sark ; " but the ancient cranky sark was made 
of home-grown and home-spun hemp. 

Ruft, E, the plot of ley ground to be ploughed in the year. 

Rug, C, to pull rudely. " Rug at it, lad !" 

Rue-bargain, G, an agreement cancelled by something given. 

Ruinate, C, to reduce to ruin. 

Rule o' thoom, G, guess-work. 

Rum, G, droll, queer. " He 's a rumman." 

Rummel, G, rumble. 

Rummish, G, rummage, ransack ; rather droll. 

Rumbustical, C, rude, overbearing. 

Rumpas, G, disturbance. " They kickt up a rumpas." 

Rumplement, C, coarse materials, disorder. 

Run a rig on, G, to banter, to ridicule. In Lancashire, to 
" trot out." 

Runch, C, a hardy, thick set person or animal. 

Rung, C, Stap, G, the round step of a ladder or gate. 


Runbutter, Rumbutter, C, butter and sugar run together with 
spices, and flavoured with rum. It is eaten by wives 
during confinement, and is offered to, and expected to be 
partaken of, by visitors. The female who first cuts into 
the bowl is predicted to first require a similar compliment, 

Runner, G, a small stream. Teut. rune. 

Runrig, G. See Turndale. 

Runt, G, an aged ox ; a strong, low-set man. 

Russel, Rissel, G, to wrestle. 

Ruttle, G, a difficult breathing. 

Ruvven, C, N.E, riven, torn. 

Rwoad, C, N.E, Rooad, S.W, road. 

Rwoag, N.E, rogue. 

Rwoan, N.E, roan. 

Rwoar, C, Roor, S.W, roar. 

Rwosy, Gr, rosy, ruddy ; a rose. 

Ryle, S.W, Reyle, N.E, to vex, to annoy. 

Ryne, Gr, rein. 

Ryner, C, a tapering augur. 

Rype, C, N.E, to search, to examine under a search warrant. 

Ryse, Gr, brushwood used in hedging. 

Rysel, C, a rollicking child. 

Ryve, C, to devour voraciously. " Ryve and eat" — to tear. 


Sackless, G-, feeble, weak-minded, simple. Ang.-Sax. sacleas. 
Sad, G, sodden, pasty, bad, " They gev us breed as sad as 

bull liver." 
Saddan, G, a sad or bad one. 
Safftree, Saughtree, N.E, a willow. 
Saggy, C, a game with marbles. 
Saim't, G, overdone with heat. 
Sal, G, shall. 

Sallant, C, Saant, S.W, Sannat, Sanna, N.E, shall not. 
Sallar, N.E, cellar. 
Samcast, G, two or more ridges ploughed into one. 


Same. G, lard. Sax. seme. 

" shall the proud lord 

That bastes his arrogance with his own seam 
Be worshipped?" 

Troi. and Cress. 
Sampleth, G-, a sampler. 
San, N.E, sand. Sco. 
Sang, Gr, song. 
Santer, G, saunter. "An oald wife's santer" — an unauthenti- 

cated tradition. 
Santerment, G, trifling employment. 
Sap, Sappy, G, wet. 
Sap-heed, Gr, a simpleton, soft-headed. 
Sapscull, G, a silly person. 
Sap-whissle, G, a boy's whistle made from a green branch of 

sycamore, &c. 
Sare, Searr, G, sore ; very much. " He 's sare worn." 
Sark, G, Shurt, E, a shirt. Dan. scerk. 

" Stryppyd hem nakyd to the 8arhe.*'—Bom. of Richard Cosur de Leon. 
Sarman, C, S.W, Sarmant, N.E, sermon. 
Sarra, C, Sarr, S.W, Sarve, Serra, N.E, serve; to bestow alms. 
Sarten, G, certain. 
Sarvant, G, servant. 
Sarvice, G, service. 

Sary, N.E, poor, pitiable. " He 's doon i' t' warl noo, sary man ! " 
Satisfyst, N.E, satisfied. " A smaa matter wad satisfyse t' likes 

o' him." 
Sattle, N.E, a wooden sofa, a settle or swab. 
Saucer een, N.E, large and full eyes. 
Say, C, N.E, authority, influence. "He 's full say ower t' 

Scar, C, Sker, N.E, the mark of a healed wound, a cicatrix. Sax. 
Scar, C, N.E, to frighten, scare ;*the rough gravel and stone 

beds on the shore of the Solway are called scars ; screes. 
Scar, C, shy, wild. " Our cowt 's parlish scar." 
Scatter, C, S.W, Sketter, N.E, to let fall from the hand by 

Sceum, G, scum. 


Scheull, G, school. 

Scobby, N.E, the chaffinch. 

Sconce, C, a stone bench or shelf. 

Scop, C, S.W, to hit; the chaffinch. 

Scope, C, S.W, Scap, N.E, the scalp. 

Scotty kye, G, Scotch cows. 

Scowp, C, a tin or iron dish ; scope N 

Scowp on, C, N.E. " Summat to scowp on" — something to 

Scram, C, S.W, the hard rind of bacon or cheese. 

Scrammel, C, scramble. 

Scrapple, C, an iron scraper. 

Scrat, C, S.W, Scart, N.E, scratch; the itch; a saving, indus- 
trious person ; a female hermaphrodite sheep. 

Screapp, G, scrape. 

Scree, C, the running debris on the side of a mountain. 

Scrimpy, C, pinched, mean. 

Scroby, C, mean, niggardly. 

Scrogs, G, stunted Vushes. 

Scrowe, C, disorder, confusion, untidyness. " Her house was 
in sec a scroive as thou niwer saw ! " 

Scumfish, C, to defeat a person or party. " He was fairly 
scumfish't " — discomfited. 

Scut, G, the tail of a hare or rabbit. 

Scutty, C, S.W, Cutty, N.E, short. 

Scworn, G, scorn. 

Scrow-mally, Scra-mally, N.E, to scramble. 

Sea, Seah, G, so, 

Seaff, G, safe. 

Seag, N.E, the Iris pseudacorus. See Meckin and Seggin. 

Seah, S.W, the sea. " Leeaksta, haivw t' seah 's swarman wr 

Seeah ! C, see you ! attend. 

Seakk, G, sake. 

Seall co'er, C, S.W, Seall crier, N.E, an auctioneer. Within 
the present century it was customary for the parish clerk 
to announce to the congregation in the church yard, after 


service, the sales to be held shortly, and also to offer 
rewards for stolen goods, &c. 

" I' th' kurk garth the dark co'd a seall."— Anderson. 
Seamm, G, same. 
Seapp, G, soap. 

Seavv o', C, a save-all, a niggardly person. 
Sebm, Sebben, C, S.W, Seeven, N.E, seven. 
See, G, to visit. " You mun co' ta see us when ye cum oor 

Seeal, S.W, seal. " Onder his hand an' seeal." Lan. 
Seeat, S.W, seat. Lan. 
Seeazan, S.W, season. Lan. 
Seed, C, N.E, saw, did see. 
Seegh, N.E, sigh. Sco. 

Seek, G, sick ; N.E, to bring. " Seek the kye heam." 
Seem, C, become, or beseem. " She duzzent seem her new cap." 
Seesta ! Sista ! G, look ! seest thou ? 
Seet, C, S.W, Seeght, N.E, sight. 
Seeter, C, S.W, a worn or frayed place in a garment. 
Seeve, C, N.E, Seeave, S.W, Besh, Kus, Busk, N.E, the rush. 
Seg, C, S.W, a callosity on the hand or foot ; a castrated bull. 
Seggin, C, N.E, the Iris pseudacorus. See Meckin. 
Sek, C, Sik, S.W, N.E, such. 
Sek, G, a sack. 
Sel, G, self. 
Selt, G, sold. 
Semple, C, the contrary of gentle. " Gentle and semple," in 

station and degree, are the people of quality and the 

Sen, N.E, send. " Sen' the cat oot, hizzy," Sco. 
Sen, C, S.W, Sin, Syne, Seyne, Sin-syne, N.E, since. 
Serious, G, Sarious, S.W, remarkable. " Serious fine," " serious 

Set, G, to appoint, to fix, to equal—" Set a day"; to accompany, 

to escort — " Set her heamm." " If he can't bang tha, he 

can set tha." 
Set, G, to nauseate. " It was sa nasty, it was fit to set a dog." 


Setchelt, C, satchel. 

Set-tail't horse, Cock-tail't horse, G. The fashion was, about 
1800, and previously, to divide the under ligaments of the 
horse's tail, and to suspend the tail by pulleys and weights 
till the wounds healed and the tail had acquired an elevated 
and permanent set. Some had the ears of their horses 
cropped as well. 

Setten, C, set, appointed. 

Setlins, G. sediment. 

Settle, G, a wooden sofa having a box below the seat. Dan. 

Settle steanns, C, N.E, the curb stones in a cowhouse. 

Seunn, C, Seean, S.W, soon. 

Seutt, G, soot. 

Seu, C, Sewe, S.W, Soo, N.E, a sow. 

Seyde, N.E, side. Sco. 

Sez, G, says. 

Shackle, C, Sheckle, N.E, the iron (formerly a willow) ring 
which slides upon the cow's restle. 

Shadda, G, shadow. 

Shaff! C, an expression denoting contempt. 

Shaff, Sheaff, C, Sheeaf, S.W, a sheaf; to bind a sheaf. 

Shafles, Spafles, C, a washy, weak-legged creature. 

Shagrag, C, a mean person, a vagabond. 

Shak, C, S.W, Shek, N.E, shake. Shek a leg, N.E, to dance. 

Shakt, Sheakk, C, N.E, shook, shaken, shake it. 

Shaks, C. " Nea girt shaks " — nothing to boast of. 

Shally wally, C, S.W, an expression of contempt. 

Sham, C, Shem, N.E, Sheamm, G, shame. 

Shank pan, C, NE, a small pan having a long handle. 

Shankum naggnm, Shanky naggy, G, the legs, on foot. " He 
rides on shankum naggum." 

Shap, C, Sheapp, S.W, N.E, Shep, N.E, shape. 

Shap, C, offer; to set about. "How does he shap?" 

Sharp, G, quick, active. " Be sharp, lads !" 

Sharps, G, coarse flour containing bran. 

Shavvins, C, Sheavvins, Shevvins, N.E, shavings. 


Shavs, Sheavvs, C, S.W, sheaves. 

Shciwle, C, Shammel, N.E, to walk in a shuffling manner. 

Shear, G, to reap. 

Shearr, C, S.W, Shwore, N.E, reaped. 

Sheen, C, machine. 

Shellcock, Stormcock, C, Shillapple, N.E, the missel thrush. 

Shelvins, Skelvins, C, S.W, Shilvins, Skilvins, Skilbins, N.E, 

hoards or frames to raise the cart sides with, 
Sheyne, N.E, shine. Sco. 
Shift, Skift, C, N.E, to remove. 
Shifty, G, apt at contrivance. 
Shill, Gr, to shell out, to unshell; cold, chill. Ang.-S. scylan, 

to divide. 
Shillies, C, Shilla, S.W, Shellies, N.E, rounded shore gravel. 
Shilly-shally, C, hesitating. 

Shindy, C, N.E, disturbance. " Kick up a shindy." 
Shinny, Skabskew, C, N.E, Catty, S.W, a boyish game; also 

the crook-ended stick used in the game. 
Shippert, G, shepherd. 
Shippen, Shupm, S.W, a cowhouse. Yks. Ger. schuppen, a 

Shog, Gr, to shake. " He 's shoggan wi' fat." 
Shog-bog, G, a shaking bog. 
Shooar, S.W, shore. " Let 's ga dawwn to t' shooar an' hev a 

dook," Lane. 
Shooder, C, N.E, shoulder. 
Shool, C, N.E, Shooal, S.W, a shovel. 
Shoo ! Hishoo ! terms used forcibly to drive away fowls. " As- 

chewele, to drive away." — Boucher. 
Shoop, C, Choop, S.W, N.E, the fruit of the wild rose. 
Shoor, C, Seur, S.W, Seer, Seurr, N.E, sure. " Shoor as a 

gun " — quite certain. 
Shoo swol, C, shoe sole. 

Shoot, C, N.E, Shawte, S.W, shout; to cry out. 
Short, C, S.W, Shwort, N.E, crumbly, like a rich cake. 
Shot, G, the reckoning at an inn ; a half-grown swine ; quit, 

rid of. 


"Hey howe! fairly shot on her! 
Bury't my wife, an' danc't atop on her." 

Old Song. 
Shot sheep or cattle, Shots, G, the refuse, leavings, the worst. 
Shot ice, C, ice frozen on the surface of the ground. 
Shudder, C, to shiver; a sudden decline in markets. " Theer 's 

heen a girt shudder at Milthrop." 
Shudder doon, C, N.E, to fall suddenly. 

Shuffle, Shuffle and cut, C, S.W, steps in old-fashioned dancing. 
Shuk, Sheukk, C, N.E, shook. 

Shun, C, Shoon, N.E, shoes. " Shone of cordewaine." — Chaucer. 
Shwort, N.E, short. 
Shwort ceakk, N.E, rich fruit cake. 
Shyve, C, N.E, Slysh, S.W, a slice. " Cut thysel a shyve o' 

cheese an' "breed, an' eat it as thou gangs." Dan. skive. 

Belg. schyve. 
Sidders, C, S.W, Sheers, N.E, scissors. 
Side, C, to decide ; the slope of a hill. Irish sidhe, a hill. 
Sidement, G, a putting of things to their places. " We nohbet 

skiftit here this week, an' hessent gitten a sidement yit." 
Side up, C, to put things to their places. 
Sidins, Sydlins, N.E, in the neighbourhood of. " He 's geann 

to t' sidins o' Caarel." 
Sillaly, C, S.W, sillily, foolishly. 
Siller, N.E, silver. Sco. 
Sillican, G, a simpleton. 
Silly, N.E, a term of compassion. "He's nobbet hed peer 

luck, silly man." 
Simmer, N.E, summer. Sco. 
Sin, N.E, Sind, C, to rinse. 
Sind doon, C, drink after eating. 

"An' sind it doon wi' good Strang yal."— Old Song. 
Sing-el, G, single. 

Siplin, N.E, sapling, a seedling tree. 
Sista, C, S.W, Seesta, N.E, look, see thou; seest thou? 
Sitten land, C, grass land where the soil is stiff and unproduc- 
tive through want of cultivation. 


'Sizes, Gr, assizes. 

Skabskew, C. See Shinny. 

Skaitch, C, to beat or thrash with a stick or rod. 

Skale, Gr, to spread about. Dan. skille. 

Skarn, C, Sharn, S.W, Skairn, Shairn, N.E, fresh cow-dung. 

Skeall, G, a scale. 

Skeapp, Gr, escape. 

Skeapp greass, C, a graceless fellow. 

Skearce, G-, scarce. 

Skeatt, C, the skate fish. 

Skeel, N.E, a large water kit. 

Skeery, Gr, Skary, N.E, wild, feary. 

Skeet, C, S.W, Skeatt, N.E, to skate. 

Skell, C, shell. " Borrowdale nuts hes thin skells." 

Skelly, Shelly, C, a fish found in Ulswater, and sometimes 

called the fresh-water herring — the Corregonus fera of 

Skelp, C, N.E, to whip or beat; to leap or run. "He skelpt 

ower t' dykes an' sowes like a mad greyhound." 
Skemmel, Gr, a long seat used in a farm kitchen. Ang.-S. scamel. 
Sken, S.W, Swunt, N.E, to squint. See Glee. 
Skep, N.E, a straw or rush basket, a bee-hive. Icel. ske^a, 
Skerr, N.E, a precipice. 

Skeybel, N.E, a good-for-nothing person. Sco. 
Skiander, C, to reproach severely, to blow up, to scold. 
Skiar, C, S.W, Shiar, N.E, to skim. 
Skidy, C, thin, slender. 
Skift, C, S.W, to shift, to remove. 
Skilly, N.E, skilful, having skill. "He's gay an' skilly at hi: 

Skip-jack, C, N.E, the breast bone of a goose; a dandified 

Skit, Gr, to asperse by inuendo, to cast reflections upon. 
Skite, G, diarrhoea in calves. 
Skirl, G-, to screech. Scand. skralla. 

Skivver, C, Shivver, N.E, to disperse by force, to punish ; debris. 
Skoald, C, Skaald, S.W, Skole, Skaal, N.E, scold. 


Skoder, C, Skaad, S.W, N,E, to scald. 

Skoder, C, scalder; the skin frayed with heat and friction 

during violent exercise. 
Skoggers, C, footless stockings worn for sleeves. 
Skonky, C, very slender or bare, especially about the head and 

neck — chiefly applied to a very short-woolled sheep. 
Skons, N.E, barley cakes. 
Skooal, S.W, school. Lane, 
Skooder, C, to take great effect upon, to bring down quickly. 

" Ned went a-shutting, an' he skoodert them down." N.E, 

to burn a girdle cake in baking. 
Skool, N.E, to scowl. 

Skoor, C, N.E, Skawer, S.W, to scour, to cleanse. 
Skooar, C, a score. 
Skraffle, C, to scramble, dispute, struggle. "He's hed a sair 

scraffle for a leevin, an' he scraffles an' disputes wid ivry 

body ; an' mair ner o' tudder, he yance skraffelt ower t' wo' 

an' brak oor worchat." 
Skrapple, Corlak, C, Cowrak, Colrak, S.W, Colrake, N.E, a tool 

to scrape with, a coal rake. 
Skreapp, G-, scrape. 

Skreen, C, N.E, Settle, N.E, a wooden sofa. 
Skreuff, <j, scurf. 
Skribe, G-, to write, to subscribe. " Aa nivver hed t' scribe of 

a pen sen he went away." 
Skrike, Skirl, C, N.E, to screech or scream. Scand. skrikia. 
Skrimpy, G, scanty, mean, pinched hospitality. 
Skrimmish, C, N.E, Skrummidge, N.E, skirmish. 
Skrowe, C, disturbance, riot. " Sec a skrowe ! " 
Skrudge, N.E, to squeeze, to rub hard as in scouring. 
Skrufnns, N.E, scrapings from a pan in which sowens have been 

boiled. (BufBans. — Brockett). 
Skrunty, Gr, dwarfish. "A skrunty besom" — one far worn- 

Dan. skrante, weakly. 
Skry, C, descry ; to discover, find out. " Jemmy skryt am 

makkan off wid his plunder." _ 

Skuff, Cuff, C, N.E, the hind part of the neck. 


Skufter, G, hurry. " He com i' sek a skufter 'et he fell, an' brak 

his shins ower t' keall-pot." 
Skumfish, G, to disable, put down, suffocate. 
Skunsh, C, a rubble quoin. 
Skurl, G, Sliar, N.E, to slide on the ice in clogs. 
Skurrick, Skuddick, Skollick, G, used to denote something of 

the very lowest value. " Nay, aal nut give a skurrick mair." 
Skybel, N.E, a lazy fellow, an oak twig. Sco. 
Slack, G, a shallow dell. Norw. slakr, marshy ground. 
Slack, G, slow, loose, hollow, not filled. " Slack at a pinch" — 

giving way when most needed. 
Slafter, C, S.W, Slaghter, N.E, slaughter, the aggregate of the 

hides and skins taken off in one establishment. " Tanner 

Tom 's bought Butcher Bob slafter for a hea-11 year." 
Slagger, C, S.W, to loiter, to be untidy ; N.E, to scatter. 
Slain, C, S.W, blighted. Teut. schlagen, to slay. 
Slake, C, to besmear, bedaub slightly ; a slight rubbing. 
Slam, C, to win the rubber at whist before the adversaries 

score at all ; to win all the tricks. 
Slant, G, Slent, N.E, to tell untruths. 
Slap, G, to beat with the open hand. 
Slap bang, G, headlong. 
Slape, Slippy, G, slippery. Scand. sleipr. 
Slape-fingert, G, guilty of pilfering. 
Slape guttit, C, subject to attacks of diarrhoea. 
Slapper, G, something large. " A girt slapper." 
Slare, C, to saunter. 
Slare, N.E, to be careless. 
Slashy, Clashy, G, wet and dirty. " Slashy weather!" "Ey, 

varra clashy." 
Slat, G, slit, split. 

Slatter, G, to spill. " Slattery weather." " Ey, slushy, varra." 
Slavver, G, Slevver, N.E, saliva. Scand. slavra. 
Slea tree, C, Sleaa tree, S.W, Slee tree, N.E, the sloe tree. 
Slea worm, C, N.E, Sleaa worm, S.W, the blind worm, slo-worm. 
Sleakk, N.E, to quench, to abate. " The rain sleakks abit." 
Sleatt, G, Skleatt, N.E, slate. 


Sled, G, sledge. Dan. slede. Belg. sledde. 

Sledder, Sledge, C, N.E, to saunter, to walk lazily. 

Slee, N.E, sly. 

Sleept, G, slept. 

Slek, C, S.W, Sleakk, N.E, to cool in or with water, to slake ; 

small coal. 
Slek trough, G, a blacksmith's cooling trough. 
Slem, C, S.W, to slight, to perform carelessly. 
Slew, C, to turn round. 
Slew't, C, partly intoxicated. 
Slidder, C, to slip down to some distance; the sliding of wet 


"And to a dronken man the way is slider." — Ch. 
Slinge, C, Slink, Slank, N.E, to walk away abjectly. 
Slink cofe, C, a cast calf. 
Slip, G, to slide, to go quickly and quietly. "Slip away for 

some watter, lass." 
Slipe, C, N.E, to unroof a building, to abscond. 
Slitch, S.W, the fine mud on the shores of an estuary, silt. 
Slither, N.E, to slip or slide on wet ground. Chaucer, slippery. 
Slobber, C, to weep with many tears. " He slobbert an' yoolt 

like a barn." 
Slodder, Sladder, Sladderment, C, mud, filth, mire. 
Slokken, G, to quench thirst, to slack lime. Goth, slokna, to 


"T th' chimlay neuk some gay gud hawns (hands), 
An' gayly ill to slokken, 
Fell tea wi' poddingers an' cans, 
An few't we el to git drukken.'' 

Mark Lonsdale's "Upshot" 

Slorp, N.E, the noise made in supping with a spoon, or in 

carelessly drinking from a glass, and drawing in air at the 

same time. 
Slot, C, a quarryman's term for a wedge shaped block of stone 

in situ; a drainer's term for a fall of earth from the side 

of his drain. 
Slotch, C, to walk heavily, as a cart-horse does. 


Slowdy, C, untidy. 

Slowmy, G, soft and weak straw which has been laid or lodged 

while growing. 
Slowp, G, slope. 

Slowpy, Sloppy, C, muddy, soft as mud. 
Slur, G, to cast reflections upon. " He slurs ivry body he talks 

Slush, G, slops, thin mud, snow broth, a dirty person. 
Slype, C, S.W, Sleype, N.E, to sweep off hastily. 
Smack, C, N.E, to whip; the sound of a lusty kiss. Teut. 


" Wi' kisses et soundit like t' sneck of a yat." 

Cumberland Ballads. 
Smasher, G, anything large or powerful. 

Smeer, Smeur, N.E, to anoint, besmear, smother. Sax. smeran. 
Smeeth, C, Smee, N.E, smooth. Sax. smcethe. 
Smeukk, C, S.W, Smeeak, N.E, smoke. 
Smiddy, G, smithy. Teut. schmiede. 

Smit, C, Huddle, S.W, the coloured mark of ownery put on sheep. 
Smittle, G, infectious, sure. " It 's as smittle as t' scab." " Yon 

whinbed 's varra smittle for hoddan a hare." 
Smo, C, Smaa, S.W, N.E, small. 
Smoot, C, Smute, S.W, Smoot hole, N.E, a hole to creep through ; 

the act of creeping through a hole. " A hare smoot." 
Smudder, C, Smoor, S.W, Smeur, N.E, smother. 
Smush, C, smartly dressed. 
Smutty, G, funny, and somewhat indelicate. 

" He telt sly smutty stwories et meadd them o' laugh." 

Cumberland Ballads. 

Snack, G, a lunch, a short meal. "Five mealls a day an' a 
snack at gangan to bed." — Borrowdale Letter. 

Snacks, G, shares. " We '11 ga snacks if we win ought." 

Snaffles, Spaffles, G, a weak but healthy person or animal. 

Snaflan, G, trifling. 

Snape, G, to curb, restrain, snub. Scand. sneipa, to put to 

Snapper, C, to hit the ground with the toe in walking. 



Snaps, G, small gingerbread cakes. 

Snarl, S.W, N.E, a snare. 

Snarl knot, C, N.E. a knot that cannot be drawn loose. Scand. 

snara, to twist. 
Sneck, G, a latch. 

Sneck drawer, C, a covetous person. 
Sneck hay, C, hunger. When a horse stands tied outside a 

door, it is said to eat sneck hay, i.e., nothing. 
Sneel, C, S.W, a snail. 
Snerp, C, Snarl, S.W, N.E, a snare. 
Snerpt, C, Snarlt, S.W, N.E, caught in a snare, tightened, 

Snerp up, C, to draw together like the mouth of a purse. 
Snerls, C, nostrils. 

Snert, G. Laughter suppressed with difficulty is snertan. 
Snew, C, N.E, Snaa't, S.W, N.E, snowed. 
Sneype, N.E, the snipe. Sco. See Hammeribleat. 
Snifter, C, to inhale sharply through the nostrils. "In a 

snifter" — as quickly done as a snifter. 
Snig, C, to drag timber by horse and chain, to lop the branches 

off fallen timber. 
Snip feasst, Snipt, G, having a white mark down the face. 
Snod, G, smooth, velvety. " As snod as a mowdywarp." Scand. 

Snootband, C, Neb plate, N.E, the iron plate on the toe of a clog. 
Sno, C, Snaa 1 S.W, N.E, snow. 
Sno-broth, G, half-dissolved snow. 
Snooze, Snoozle, C, Snews, N.E, half sleeping. 
Snotter, C, N.E, to blubber. " Snotter an' yool " — blubber 

and cry. 
Snowk, C, to work with the snout as a pig or a mole does ; to 

act in an underhand way. 
Snwoar, C, Snoor, S.W, snore. 
Snuffle, C, S.W, Sneevle, N.E, to talk through the nose. Belg. 

So, C, So, Saa, S.W, N.E, to sow corn, &c. 
Soam, C, S.W, a psalm. 


Sobby, Soddy, Soggy, C, bulky and heavy as a sod. 

Softish, Softly, G, a term of comparison. " A softish mwornin." 

" Ey, it rayder weets." 
Sonsy, G, stout and heavy, plump. 
Sonsy, N.E, lucky, full, generous. Sco. 
Soo, C, Sough, N.E, the distant sighing or surging of the sea 

or wind. 
Sooa, C, S.W, so, be quiet, let alone. This word is often 

doubled, as sooa sooa! Scand, svei, fie. 
Sooals, C, a swivel joint in a chain, commonly termed a pair o' 

Sooins, G, sowens, pottage of oatmeal dust. 
Sook, G, suck. 

Soond, C, Sawnd, S.W, Soon, N.E, sound. 
Soop, C, Soup, N.E, to sweep. 

Soople, C, N.E, supple, flexible, the second half of a flail. 
Soople-jack, C, a pliant and knotted West Indian walking stick. 
Soor, G, N.E, Sawwer, S.W, sour. 

Soor milk, C, N.E, Sawwer milk, Chernt milk, S.W, buttermilk. 
Sop, C, S.W, a tuft of weeds or grass, &c. 
Sop, Boss, C, Waze, Weeze, N.E, a milkmaid's cushion for the 

Sose, Saas, N.W, sauce, impertinence. 
Sositer, C, Saasiter, S.W, N.E, sausage. 

Soss, C, N.E, to plunge into water; S.W, a boiled mess for a cow. 
Sote, C, Saat, S.W, N.E, salt. 

Sotter, G, the noise or sound of boiling pottage, &c. 
Souse, C, something very sour. " Sour as souse." But what 

is souse the writer has not been informed. 
Sove, G, salve. 

Sowder, sowderment, C, a mixture by a bungling cook. 
"Sec a sowder Betty meadd." 

Old Song. 
Sowe, C, Seugh, N.E, a wide and watery ditch. 
Sowjer, N.E, soldier. Sco. 
Sowt, Soght, N.E, sought, brought. "Jimmy's soght the keye 



Sowt, the joint-ill in lambs and calves. 

Sowpy, C, N.E, soft, spongy, watery. 

Spak, Speakk, C, S.W, Spok, N.E, spoke, spake. 

Spang, C, N,E, to leap, to spring, to span. 

Spang hue, C, Spang whew, N.E, to pitch up violently. 

Spanker, G, a tall and active young person, a fast-going horse. 

Span new, Splinter new, Spick an' span new, C, never having 

been used. Dan. splinter ny. 
Spar, S.W, spare. Yks. 
Spatterdashes, C, gaiters. 
Speadd, G, spade. 
Speall, Spell, G, a chip, a splinter. 
Speann, G, to wean. 
Speatt, C, Spete, N.E, a sudden and heavy fall of rain, a water 

spout. " A speatt o' rain." 
Speattry, G, the village of Aspatria. 
Speavv, C, to castrate a heifer or ewe. 
Speeak, S.W, speak. Lane. 
Specks, Speckets, C, spectacles. 
Specldy, G, spedding. 
Speer, N.E, to enquire. " Speer at him" — ask him. Sax. 

spyrian, to inquire. 
Spekes, C, N.E, Speeaks, S.W, wheel spokes. 
Spell, G, a turn of work, &c. " Let 's tak a spell at kurning." 
Spelk, C, N.E, a splint, rib of a basket, a rod to fasten down 

thatch with. Ang.-Sax. spelc, a splinter. 
Spelk hen, G, the hen paid annually to the lord of the manor 

for liberty of cutting spelks in the lord's wood. 
Speunn, C, N.E, Spooan, S.W, spoon. 
Speyce, N.E, spice. Sco. 
Speyther wob, N.E, the spider's web. 
Spiddick, C, spigot. 

Spile, C, the vent peg of a cask, a stake. 
Spink, Scop, G, the chaffinch. 
Spirt, G, to eject a small quantity of saliva. Spurt, G, to eject a 

mouthful. " He spurtit bacca slavver o' t' fleer ower." 
Spittle, C, saliva. Sax. spatl. 


Splat, C, had or did split. 

Splutter, G, to speak quick, and with difficult utterance. 

Spokkan, G, spoken. 

Spole, C, to partially separate the shoulders of an animal from 

the chest. Aspole, C, a-splay, wide asunder — in reference 

to the feet. 
Spot, C, place of service. " Aa gang to my spot at Martinmas." 
Sprang, G, did spring. 
Spreckelt, Sprickelt, C, S.W, speckled. 
Spreed, C, N.E, Spreed, S.W, spread, 
Sprent, Sprint, C, to sprinkle. A pen sprints when it scatters 

the ink over the paper. 
Sproag, C, a jaunt. " Let 's gang a sproagin a hit." 
Spunk, animation, spirit. 
Spunky, G, lively. 
Spurtle, N.E, a thin piece of wood used for turning cakes on a 

girdle, an implement used in thatching. 
Spurtle, N.E, to kick with the feet, as a child does when on the 

nurse's knee. 
Spwort, G, sport. 
Squab, C, Swab, N.E, an inferior sort of wooden sofa, without 

the seat box of the settle. 
Square, C, true, correct, fit. " That breks nea squares " — it 

does not disarrange the precision. 
Squash, C, quash. 
Squeel, G, to screech. 
Staanla, S.W, fctanley. 
Stack, G, stuck. " He stack in a bog." 
Stag, C, S.W, a colt, a young game-cock. Ang.-Sax. steig, a 

male animal. 
Stagger, G, to confound, to confuse. 

Stakker, G, to stagger. " He stakkert a bit an' than he fell." 
Stang, G, and Steng, N.E, did sting; a pole — a "car stang." 
Stank, C, Stenk, N.E, to groan short. " Stankan an' greannan 

as if he ailt summat." Scand. stianka. 
Stank, C, N.E, and Stenk, N.E, a pond, water dammed up, 

a midden. 


Stap, G, stave of a tub, step of a ladder. 

Stark, C, S.W, hidebound, unnaturally stiff. 

Starken, S.W, Storken, N.E, to stiffen. Sax. starke. 

Stark neakt, G, and Sterk neakt, N.E, entirely naked, raw- 

Starn, C, stern. 

Start, C, the long handle'of a wooden pail. 

Starty, C, S.W, nervous, subject to jump or start on alarm. 

Statesman, C, S.W, Laird, N.E, the owoer of an estate, a 

Stayk, C, N.E, to wander, to blunder. " Thoo girt staykan 
feull ! ■ 

Stayt, C, S.W, Steatt, N.E, an estate. 

Stay't, C, stayed, staid, sedate. 

Stayvel, Swayvel, C, Stevvel, N.E, to saunter like a person 
without employment. 

Steabble, G, stable. 

Stead, C, an unenclosed plot on a mountain or common on 
which certain parties have defined rights, as ou Borrow- 
dale, Wythburn, and other fells. Teut. stete, a place. 
(" Steed or Stede signifieth place, as Stow also doeth."— 

Steaddlin, C, Stadlin, S.W, a foundation for a corn or hay mow, 
to prevent damp rising. 

Steakk, G, stake. 

Steall, C, S.W, Steull, N.E, stole. 

Steeall, S.W, steel, steal. Lane. 

Steeam, S.W, steam. Lane. 

Steann, Gr, stone. Sax. stan. 

Steanny, Steannt horse, C, N.E, a stallion, an entire horse. 

Steapple, C, Stapple, S.W, Steeple, N.E, a staple. 

Steck, E, to resist, to be obstinate or tetchy. 

Stee, G. and Stey, N.E, a ladder. 

Steel, C, S.W, a stile. 

Steg, C, a gander. Ang.-Sax. steig, a male animal. 

Stencher, C, a stanchion. 

Stepmother bit, C, a scanty allowance. 


Steudd, Steadd, G, stood. 

Steukk, N.E, a silly fellow. 

Steiikk, C, Steek, N.E, to shut, or close, or fasten. "Steukk 

that deurr, lad." Teut. steek. 
Steull, C, N.E, Steeal, S.W, stool. 
Stew, C, Stoor, S.W, N.E, dust. 
Stew, C, N.E, excitement, haste. " In a sad stew!" 
Steyle, N.E, style. Sco. 
Stibble, N.E, stubble. Sco. 

Stick up for, G, to advocate. " He stuck up weel for Tom." 
Stickle, C, fright, alarm. " In a parlish stickle." 
Sticky, G-, adhesive, clammy. 

Stiddy, G, and Studdy, N.E, steady; an anvil, stithy. 
Stigh! His-stigh ! C, N.E, terms used in driving pigs. 
Still, G-, always. " He still does that way." 
Stilt, G, the arm and handle of a plough ; to walk in a stiff 

Stingy aa\ carl, N.E, cross-tempered old man. 
Stint, C, Stent, N.E, to limit, to send out to grass ; a cattle grass. 
Stirk, Sturk, G, a yearling heifer or bullock. Sax. styrc. » 
Stirran, C, S.W, Sturran, N.E, stirring, active. " He 's a stirrin 

lad, yon." 
Stirrup oil, C, a beating with a strap. 
Sto, C, Staa, S.W, N.E, stall; a surfeit. " Plenty o' butter wad 

sto a dog." 
Stob, G, stab ; a post or stake. 
Stomick, N.E, stomach, appetite. 
Stoond, C, Stoon, N.E, astound; to benumb ; the pain resulting 

from a blow. 
Stoor, C, dust blown about. 
Stoovt, Stuvt, C, Tovt, N.E, the ear-mark of a sheep having the 

end of the ear cut off. 
Stop, G, to stow or pack. " Stop them things inta t' drawer." 

To stay. 
Stope, C, Staap, S.W, N.E, to walk as in the dark. See Pope. 
Stott, G, and Stutt, Stud, N.E, to bound as a sheep or deer 

does when jumping with all the feet together. 


Stotter, C, Stowter, N.E, to walk clumsily. 

Stowe, C, N.E, to place, to cram. 

Stower, G, estover, a stake. Scand. staur. 

Stower an' yedder, C, S.W, Steakk an' reyse, N.E, a mode of 

Stown, G, stolen. 
Strang, G, strong. 

Strea, C, N.E, Stream, S.W, Stree, N.E, straw. 
Streak, C, a straight-edged ruler, used to level the top of a 

measure of corn ; a strike. Teut. streiche. 
Streakk, Streukk, Gr, and Strack, N.E, struck. 
Streemers, C, N.E, Streeamers, S.W, northern lights, aurora 

Streek, G, to stretch, lay out a corpse. 
Streen,* Streyn, G, strain, sprain, distrain. 
Street, Gr, Streight, N.E, straight. 
Strenth o' men an' pitchforks, C, power, influence. 
Streuvv, Gr, strove. 
Streyk, N.E, strike. Sco. 
Streyve, N.E, strive. Sco. 

Strickle, Gr, a sanded piece of wood used for sharpening scythes. 
Striddle, G, and Straddle, N.E, stride, straddle. 
Strikin knife, C, Choppin knife, S.W, Chopper, N.E, a but- 
cher's cleaver. 
Strinkle, C, N.E, to sprinkle. 
Strinklin, C, N.E, sprinkling. 
Strint, C, Strone, N.E, a term for the milk as it is drawn from 

the teats by the hand ; the smallest quantity — "a strint 

o' milk. 
Strippins, G, the last of the milking 
Stritch, C, to strut. 

Stritcher, G, stretcher ; a softened term for an untruth. 
Stroke, C, a comparative term of augmentation. " A good 

stroke o' bizness." 

* On the compiler of this removing to another residence, a friendly 
neighbour offered assistance by saying, "If you want enny help at skiftin, 
you mun streen on us." 


Stroke, C, step, measure. " He hes a lang stroke o' t' grand." 

He takes long strides. 
Strop, G, strap. 

Stroppan, G, strapping, tall and active. 
Strunt, N.E, pet, sulks. 
Strunty, Strinty, C, dwarfish. 
Stub, C, to grub up. 
Stubs, C, Stumps, N.E, the old nails from a horse's shoe, used 

for clogs. 
Stuffment, C, S.W, something worthless, doubtful information. 
Stulp, C, Stoop, S.W, N.E, a gate post, the turning post in a 

Stump an' rump, G, the entirety. " He snapt it o' up, stump 

an' rump." 
Stumps, G, legs. " Stir yer stumps." 
Stummer, G-, to stumble. 
Stunner, C, N.E, something extraordinary. 
Stur, G, stir. 
Sturrups, G, stirrups. 
Stutter, G, to stammer. 
Stwory, G, story, an untruth. " That 's a stwory, aal be bund 

for 't." 
Styme, C, Steyme, N.E. Used to express perfect darkness. 

" Can't see a styme." 
Styne, Styan, C, a painful swelling on the eyelid. 
Suck ! C, S.W, a call note for calves. 
Suckam, C, the liquor that drains from a dung heap. " Mid- 

din suckam." 
Sud, G, should. 

Sudden t, G, should not ; sudden. 

Suds, G, soap and water, sulky. " She 's int' suds to-day." 
Sudta, G, should thou. " Thou sud behave thysel better, at 

Suer, C, Seer, Seur, N.E, sure. " For suer." For a certainty. 
Sugger, C, sugar. 

Sullert, C, stuffed or choked up with a cold. 
Summat, G, something, somewhat. 


Summat-like, G, likely for the purpose, pretty, or becoming. 

"Ey, that's summat-like, now." 
Summer geatt, C, summer pasturage. 
Sumph, N.E, a blockhead. 
Sup, G, to sip; an indefinite measure of liquids. "A girt sup." 

" A laal sup ; " "A sup o' tea." 
Suppwose, G, suppose. 
Sur, G, sir. 

Swab, N.E, a wooden sofa, settle, or sattle. 
Swacl, G, a pod. 
Swadder, C, to dabble in water. " Swadcleran like a duck in a 

Swadderment, C, drink. 
Swadler, C, a methodist. 

Swagt, G, bent downwards in the centre. Goth. siga. 
Swag belly't, G, corpulent, the lower part of ihe abdomen 

Swally, Swolly, N.E, to swallow. 
Swang, C, N.E, a wet hollow ; did swing. 
Swap, Swop, G, exchange, barter. 
Swape, C, a lever, pump handle. 
Swash, C, wet stuff. 

Swarth, C, the skin of hams and bacon, sward. 
Swat, C, a heavy fall. " He fell wicl a swat, like a wet seek." 
Swat, C, to sit. " Come swat ye a bit." 
Swatter, Swattle, C, to indulge in drink ; drink. 
Swatch, C, a bill hook. " 0' of a swatch." All alike, equal. 
Swayth, C, S.W, Sweeth, N.E, the line of grass thrown off the 

Swearr, G, sware. 
Sweel, C, N.E, to burn swiftly with flame; the melting of a 

lighted candle in a draught. Sax. sivelan, to inflame. 
Sweels o' laughing, C, peals of laughter. 
Sweemish, N.E, squeamish. Teut. scliweimen* to swoon. 
Sweept, G, and Soopt, N.E, swept. 
S weer, G, to swear. 
Sweet, G, perspiration, sweat. 


Sweetmart, C, S.W, the marten. * 

Swelter, C, N.E, to perspire freely. "0' in a swelter." Sax. 

sweltan, to die. 
Swennt, Swinnt, C, twisted, bent out of truth. 
Swet, C, S.W, Swat, N.E, did sweat. 
Sweye, C, N.E, to sway, swing. Dan. sweje. 
Sweyne, C, N.E, swine. 
Swig-swag, C, a- pendulum. 
Swill, G, a rough basket. 
S wilier, S.W, a swill maker. 
Swine creuh, N.E, a pigsty, a dirty hull or house. " Her house 

is na better ner a swine creuh." 
Swinge, C, Sing, N.E, to singe with fire. 
Swinjer, C, a great lie, an astounding assertion. 
Swingle-tree, Swinglin, C, Swinnle-tree, N.E, the wooden bar 
each plough-horse draws by. 

Swinler, Gr, swindler. 

Swipe, C, to drink hurriedly, to drink or sup the whole. "He 
swipe't it up, iv'ry drop." Scand. svipa, to hasten. 

Swiper, C, a hard drinker. 

Swirl, C, S.W, Swurl, N.E, to whirl round, 

Swirt, Swurt, C, N.E, squirt, a syringe. 

Swirtle, Swurtle, C, to move quickly and tortuously, as a small 
fish does in a shallow stream. 

Switcher, G, any fast-going thing. 

Swoak, C, to soak. 

Swober, N.E, sober. 

Swol, C, Sooal, S.W, N.E, sole (of the foot, shoe, &c.) 

Swops, N.E, sups, messes. 

Swort, Gr, sort ; to select, to arrange. 

Swory, Gr. sorry. 

Swum, C, Soom, N.E, swim. "Can ta swum enny?" 

Swun, N.E, swoon. 

Swurd, Gr, sword, 

Swyke, C, S.W, a thin made animal ; a worthless fellow. 

Sydle, C, N.E, to saunter, to approach sideways or obliquely, in 
a fawning or coaxing manner. 
* This animal still exists i n the Cumberland mountains, 1859. 


Sye, C, N.E, a very small quantity. " Oald Kobin sank a well, 

an' ther wazzant a sye o' watter in 't." 
Sye, G, a scythe. 
Syke, C, Seyke, N.E, a small wet hollow. Welsh, sych, a drain 

or sink. Norw. siki, a marsh. 
Syle, G, a straining sieve ; to strain through a sieve. 
Syme, G, a straw rope. 
Syne, C, to decant, drain off; to give up taking milk from a 

cow, <fec. 
Syne, Sin-syne, N.E, since. " Aald lang syne," Sco. Syn, Gh. 
Syne-ways, C, sundry ways. " They ran ivry yan synewaysV 
Sype, Gr, to drain off. 
Syper, G, a toper. 
Sypins, G, the last drops. 
Syre, N.E, a gutter or vennel, sewer. 
Syte, Gr, a great deal. " A syte of fwok." 
Syzel, G, to saunter, to trifle. 

T ', C, S.W, the. This article, in its abridged form, is scarcely 
used in the north of the county. See Preface. 

Ta, G, thou. " Wilta ? " Wilt thou ? 

Taak, S.W, N.E, talk. 

Tab, C, the narrow end of a field, &c. " Tab end." 

Tacks, C, tacket nails. 

Ta dea, C, S.W, to do. " Sek a ta dea ! "—such work ! 

Taffle, C, to throw into disorder, to perplex. 

Taffy, G, a weak-minded person, a derisive term. 

Taffy, C, Claggum, N.E, treacle hardened by boiling, toffy. 

Taffy-joinin, C, a toffee club. Young people in the country 
sometimes assemble on a winter evening and subscribe a 
few pence each to buy treacle for making " taffy," and to 
enjoy the fun of slyly bedaubing each other's faces. 

Tag, G, the end. See Aglet. 

Taggelt, C, a vagabond. 

Taistrel, Waistrel, G, a person of vagabond life. 

Tak, C, S.W, Tek. Teak, N.E, take. Belg. tacke. 


Tak, C, a trick or lift in card playing. 

Tak efter, G, to resemble. " He taks efter t' fadder." 

Takkan, C, S.W, taking, infectious. " As takkan as t' scab." 

Takkin, C, S.W, hurried perplexity. " In a sad takkin." 

Tak t' shine off, C, to spoil the appearance of, to excel. " He 
teuk t' shine off o' t' rest." 

Takt tul his-sel, C, to apply an inuendo. 

Ta mworn a' mwornin, C, to-morrow morning. 

Tan, C, to beat. " Aal tan his hide for am." 

Tangs, C, S.W, Tengs, Teangs, N.E, tongs, prongs. 

Tansy, N.E, a public house ball. 

Tantrums, G, fits of passion. 

Tarn, G-, a small lake. Norw. tiorn. 

Tarnt, N.E, ill-natured. 

Tarrable, Taarble, N.E, terrible. This word is often used to 
indicate something extrordinary, as "taarble nice" — 
" taarble hee " — " taarble low," &c. • 

Tarrier, G, terrier. 

Tart, G, sour, acid. 

Tat, C, S.W, that. A fell- dale word exclusively, and nearly 
obsolete, 1859. 

Tathy grass, N.E, soft grass grown under trees. 

Tatter, C, hurry. " In a tatter," — a rag. 

Tatteran, C, hurrying, scolding. 

Tatter-can, C, a termagant, a kicking cow. 

Taty, G, potatoe. 

Taty an' point, G, people too poor to be able to buy flesh meat 
have been said to have provided a very small piece of but- 
ter, or bacon fat, to place in the centre of the dinner table, 
and, having loaded their knives or spoons with mashed 
potatoes, were allowed to point towards, but not to touch 
the morsel — hence " taty an' point." 

Taty crab, G, the fruit of the potatoe. 

Taty hash, G, potatoe soup. 

Taw, To, C, a boy's favourite marble. 

Tawwer, S.W, tower. " Broughton tawwer." 

Taylear, C, S.W, Teaylear, N.E, tailor. 


Te, Tull, C, S.W, Till, N.E, to. " Aal come te ya." 

Teaa, Teea, C, S.W, Tee, N.E, toe. 

Teaa, Teann, G, the one. 

Tea-board, C, a wooden tea-tray, usually of mahogany or 

walnut, and formerly accounted a mark of gentility. 
Teabble, G-, table. 
Teah, Teuh, C, Tiv, N.E, to, too. " Put t' dear teah,"— shut 

the door. "He wad gang tiv a' the merryneets this 

Teadd, G, the toad. 
Teadd-pipe, C, Paddock -peype, N.E, the equisetum arvense 

Teakk, Teukk, G, took. 

Teakk efter, C, ran after. " He teakk efter t' hare." 
Teall, G, tale. 

Teally-pyet, G, a tell-tale, a betrayer of secrets. 
Teamm, G, tame. 
Teann, Tukkan, C, taken. 
Tear, C, to rally or bully. 
Tearan, C. tearing, careering. " Tearan like a crazy thing." 

Sax. teran, to rend. 
Tearin, S.W, the rendering of a roof. 
Teasst, G, taste. 

Teatt, G, a very small quantity. " A teatt o' woo." 
Teattit, G, Tatty, N.E, matted, uncombed. 
Teavv, C, to pick the bedclothes in febrile delirium. 
Teazz, Teeas, G, toes. 

Teck, C, Tack, N.E, a stitch. " A teck i' time seavvs nine." 
Tedder, G, tether. 
Te-draw, Teu-draw, C, N.E, a place of resort, a newsmonger's 

house, a place of shelter. Dru, Er. a thicket, — in Dooms- 
day Book, a grove. 
Tee, C, Thaw, S.W, thee. 

Tee, N.E, to tie, G, to fetter a cow's hind legs during milking. 
Teen leatth, C, S.W, tithe barn. 
Teeram, C, S.W, Tarm, Tearm, N.E, term, 
Tee-tak-up-o', C, a teetotum. 


Teeth an, C, teething, getting teeth. 

Te-lick te-smack, C, as fast as possible. Generally applied 

to persons in the act of running. 
Telt, G, told. 

Tern, C, S.W, Thaim, N.E, them. 
Terns, G-, a hair sieve. 
Tent, G, tenth. 

Teppy teazz, C, tip of the toes. 

Tersy versy, N.E, topsy turvy, in confusion or disorder. 
Te sel, C. S.W, Tey sel, N.E, thyself. 
Tetch, C, Steck, E, to he restive or obstinate. 
Teuff, C, Towgh, S.W, Teugh, NE, tough. 
Teufet, C, Peesweep, N.E, the lapwing. 
Teufish, Teufly, C, rather tough. 
Teufo, C, too-fall, a lean-to shed. 
Teull, G, tool. 

Teumm, Teem, C, N.E, Teeam, S.W, to pour out, empty. 
Teunn, G, tune. 

Teunable, G, having a musical ear. 
Teiird, C, N.E, turd, excrement. 
Tenth, G, tooth. 

Teiithwark, C, S.W, Teuth yik, N.E, tooth ache. 
Teutt, C, N.E, Cot, S.W, to wait upon, to attend. " He teutts 

about his laal wife as if she was a barn." 
Tey dins, N.E, tidings, news. Sco. 
Teydy, N.E, tidy. Sco. 
Teyght, Teyt, N.E, tight. Sco. 
Teym, N.E, time. Sco. 
Teyny, N.E, tiny. Sco. 
Teythe, N.E, tithe. Sco. 
Teytle, N.E, title. Sco. 
Thack, Theak, G, thatch. Scand. thekia. 
Thack bottle, G, a bundle of thatch. 
Thack spittle, G, N.E, a tool used in thatching. 
Than, G, then. 
Tharsty, N.E, Dry, G, thirsty. 
That at' donnet, C, that evil one. 


Thattan, G, that one. 

The dickins ! C, an exclamation of surprise, and also a kind of 

Thee, C, S.W, Theye, N.E, thigh. 
Theeaf, S.W, thief. 
Theek, G-, to thatch. 
Theer, C, Thearr, S.W, Teer, Theer, N.E, there, there is. 

" Hey lad, theer a penny for tha." 
Them, C, S.W, Thaim, N.E, those. 
Thenk, G, thank. 

Theursby, N.E. Thursby, near Carlisle. 
Thick, N.E, familiar, friendly. "Thick as inkle weavers." 
Thimmel, G, thimble. 
Thing, G, this word is used to express quality. " It 's good 

thing."—" It 's bad thing." 
Thingamy, C, N.E, a contemptuous appellation. "What is 

yon daft thingamy about ? " 
Thingumbob, C, N.E, a useless or trifling ornament. 
Think me on, G, remind me. # 

Think on, G, to remember, to keep in mind. 
Thinly, Thinnish, G, rather thin. 
Third man, G, an umpire. 
Thirl, N.E, Thrul, to bore through. Sax. thirlian, to pierce. 

" With a spere was thirled his brest bone." — Gh. 
Thirt-teen, Thurt-teen, G, thirteen. 
Thisn, TisQ, G, this one, this thing. 
Thissle, G, thistle. 
Thoo, C, N.E, Thaw, S.W, thou. 
Thoo baddan, thoo ! This form of speech is in frequent use, 

and especially for reproach. 
Thoo dud, dud ta ? Thoo duddent, dud ta ? common modes of 

questioning, and of expressing doubt or surprise at the 

same time. 
Thoo 's like, C, N.E, thou must. " Thoo 's like ta come in." 

" Thuz like ta hev her." 
Thoom, G, thumb. 
Thoom shag, C, N.E, bread and butter spread by the thumb. 


Thoosan, C, N.E, Tbawwzan, S.W, thousand. 

Thowe, C, N.E, Thawwe, S.W, thaw. 

Thowt, G, thought. 

Thma, S.W, to throw. 

Tbrang, G, throng, busy. . Dan. trang, pressed upon, 

Thrast, G, thrust. — Chaucer. 

Threavv, G, throve. 

Threed, C, N.E, Threead, S.W, thread. 

Threep doon, G, N.E, to persist in a wrong assertion. "He 

threeps ma doon at aa dud say seah." Sax. threpian, to 

affirm positively. 
Threeptree, G, the wooden bar the two plough horses are 

yoked to. 
Threesam reel, N.E, a three-reel. Sco. 
Threeten, G, threaten. 
Threve, C, Threeav, S.W, twenty-four sheaves of corn. Dan. 

Threshwurt, C, Threshurt, N.E, threshold. 
Threye, N.E, three. 
Thrimmel, Trimmel, G, tremble. 
Thrinter, C, S.W, a sheep of three winters old. 
Throddy, C, plump, well grown, throughly. 
Throo leet, G, light all night, full moon. 
Throoly, G, portly. 

Throo other, C, Throo ither, N.E, mixed up, confusion. 
Thropple, G, the windpipe. 
Throssan, C, S.W, Thrussan, N.E, thrust. 
Throssan up, C, thickset, conceited. " He 's nobbet a throssan 

up thing." 
Thro, C, a turning lathe ; to turn in a lathe. 
Thro, C, Dash, N.E, a flourish in writing. 
Thruff, Thrufstan, C, Through, N.E, a flat tombstone. 
Thrwoat, N.E, throat. 
Thud, G, a heavy stroke with a dull sound. 
Thump, G, a blow ; to beat with the fists. 
Thumper, G, a great one. 
Thunner, G, thunder. 


Thur, C, Theeaz, S.W, Thir, N.E, these, those. Scand. theyr. 

Thurd, C, N.E, third. 

Thurty, C, Thairty, N.E, thirty. 

Thworn, N.E, thorn. 

Thyvel, C, Poddish stick, S.W, Keall stick, N.E, a stick for 

stirring the boiling pot. 
'Tice, G, entice. 
Tick-tack, G, the tick of a clock, a short period. " Aal hev 't 

done in a tick-tack" 
Tiddious, C, Tiddysom, N.E, tedious. 
Tift, G, to pant. 

Tig, G, to touch gently ; a boyish play. 
Tiller, C, S.W, to spread, to send out side shoots. 
Timmer, G, timber. 
Timmer rearin, C, Timmer raisin, N.E, a festivity held on 

occasion of putting the roof timbers on a new building. 
Timmersom, C, N.E, timorous. 

Tine, N.E, to shut up a pasture field till the grass grows again, 
Tinkler, G, tinker. 
Tip, G, and Teup, N.E, a tup. 
Tirl, C, twirl. 

Tirlt, N.E, unroofed, the thatch blown off. See Reuvv. 
Tite, G, Tit, N.E, soon. "I'd as tite dea't as nut" — I'd as 

soon — I'd rather. Sax. as tide, Isl. as tid. 
Titter, G, sooner, rather. " Titter up co' tudder up " — the first 

who rises to call on the other. Norw. teitr, glad. 
Titty, N.E, sister. Sco. 

Tittyvate, G, to put into order, decorate, fit out. 
Tizzik, C, a slight illness prevailing generally. " It 's a tizzik 

at 's gangan amang fwok." 
Tizzy, N.E, a sixpence. 
T' laal an, C, the little one, the child. 
To', C, tall. 

Toddle, G, to walk feebly, like a child or an old person. 
Toft, G, a homestead. 
Togidder, G, together. 
Tokker, N.E, dowry, portion. Sco. tocher. 


Tome, C, Toom, N.E, a hair fishing line, Dan. tdmme. 

Tommaty taa, Tommy tee, C, the titmouse. 

Tomy, C, Taamy, S.W, Toomy, N.E, that draws out like toasted 

Tou, Ta, C, Thaww, S.W, thou. 
Tooa, C, S.W, Twee, Twea, N.E, two. 
Too % C, Thou % N.E, Thaw % S.W, thou wilt. 
Toom, N.E, a cord or string partly untwisted. 
Toon, C, N.E, Taawn, S.W, town. 
Toon bull, C, a bull kept by turn in an agricultural village.* 

" He com rworan like a toon (town's) bull." 
Tooz, Thooz, C, N.E, Thawwz, S.W, thou art. 
Toozle, C, N.E, Tawwzle, S.W, to ruffle, to pull about rudely. 
Top lad! C, N.E, good boy ! an interjection of encouragement 

to a boy, &c. 
Topmer, G, the one above the other, uppermost. 
Topper, G, one who excels. 
Toppin, Gr, the hair of the forehead. 
Toppin peats, C, Flaks, N.E, turf with herbage on. 
Top-taties, C, Terriers, N.E, tubers on the stems of potatoes. 
Topsman, G, the man in charge of a drove of cattle, &c. 
Toptire, C, towering passion, great disturbance. 
Torfer, C, CW, Torfel, N.E, to die, to fail, to be defeated. 

Sax. steorfan. 
Torious, N.E, notorious. 
Torn, S.W, turn. " Ga' rawrwnd t' hawse, and torn that aald 

caivw back inta t' faald." 
Tossicatit, N.E, intoxicated. 

To t' fwore, C, living, alive. " Is t' oald man to t' fwore? " 
Totter bog, C, a shaking bog. 

Toucher, C, a near approach. " It 's as near as a toucher." 
Touchy, Touchious, G, easily offended. 
Towerts, C, Torts, S.W, towards. 
Towertly, C, Tortly, S.W, kindly. 

Towp, Towple, C, Cowp, S.W, N.E, to upset, to overturn. 
Towry lowry, G, all in disorder. 

* This custom is now obsolete. 


Toytle ower, C, to topple over, to upset. 
Traily, G, slovenly, lazily. Scand. treglegr, lazy. 
Tramp, C, Tramper, N.E, a beggar, vagabond. " On tramp,'» 
in search of employment — often an excuse for seeing the 
country, and being maintained at the cost of some club 
or union. Scand. trampa. 
Tram, Trab, C, a long narrow field, 
Trantlements, C, useless trifles. 
Trapenna, C, Torpenhow parish and village. 
Travvish, C, traverse. 
Treadd, P, S.W, Treudd, N.E, trode. 
Treass, G, trace. 

Treed, Gr, tread. " Doont treed o' my feutt." 
Treeacle, S.W, Treecle, N.E, treacle. 
Tret, N.E, treated. 
y Trig, C, tight, well-filled. " Trig as an apple." 
Trim, C, to beat or whip ; order, condition. " What trim 's t' 

oald horse in t' year? " 
Trimmer, G, a neat one. 
Trinkams, G, trinkets, useless finery. 
Trippet, C, a* piece of wood used in a game. "Deed (dead) 

as a trippet." 
Trod, G, a footpath. Ang.-Sax. 
Trolly bags, C, N.E, tripes. 
Troff, C, Trowf, S.W, Trowh, N.E, a trough. 
Trooan, C, Trowan, N.E, truant. 
Trooin, P, Trowan, N.E, trowel. 

Troonce, C, N.E, Trainee, S.W, trounce ; to whip, to punish, to 
travel fast and far. " Sec a troonce we 've hed ower V fells." 
Troot, C, N.E, Trawwt, S.W, trout. 
Trug, C, N.E, a wooden coalbox. 

Truncher, C, a trencher, a wooden platter. Now out of use, 1857 
Trunnel, C, S.W, the wooden wheel of a barrow ; trundle. 
Tsit, C, it is it, that is it. 
Tu, C, N.E, Taoo, S.W, to plague, teaze, struggle. "He 's hed 

a sare tu on't." 
Tudder, G, the other. 


Tuk, Teuk, Teakk, G, took. 

Tukkau, Teann, C, S.W, Te-enn, N.E, taken. 

Tul, G, and Te, N.E, to. 

Tult, C, S.W, Tilt, N.E, to it, 

Tumlan, C, S.W, tumbling. " A tumlan steann gidders nea 

moss." — Old proverb. 
Tummel, G, tumble. 
Tummel car, C, N.E, a clumsy cart of old times, the axle of 

which revolved along with the wheels. 
Tuppence, G, twopence. 
Turmet, G, N.E, turnip. 

Turna, C, Torna, Laa-man, S.W, Turny, N.E, attorney. 
Turn an' turn aboot, G, alternately. 

Turn deall, C. In some^ undivided common fields, the owner- 
ship of the parcels changes annually in succession. 
Turras, C, Torrs, S.W, Turrs, N.E, turfs. "Turnes, clods of 

earth." — Verstegan (1634). 
Tush, C, N.E, Tosh, S.W, tusk. 
Tussle, G, a struggle, contest. 
Tuthem, G, to them. 
Twaddle, G, unmeaning talk. 
Twang, G, a pang of toothache, the sound of a stringed 

Twea, N.E, two. 
Tweesam, N.E, two in company. " A compagnie of ladies, 

twey and twey." — Ch. 
Twill, C, a quill. 

Twilt, G, and Twult, N.E, a quilt ; to beat. 
Twine, C, Tweyne, N.E, and Sco., to whine, complain. " She 

tweyns and twists on, peer aa\ body," N,E. 
Twinter, C, S.W, a sheep of two winters. 
Twit, C, to sneer at. 

Twitter, C, edge. " Just in a twitter,"— on the very edge. 
Twoast, G, toast. 
Twonty, N.E, twenty. Sco. 

Tyke, C, Teyke, N.E, Sco., an unruly fellow, a dog. 
Tylt, Tyld, S.W, toiled, wearied, annoyed. 



Udder, C, S.W, Ither, N.E, other. 

Udder-geatts, N.E, otherwise, different. 

"When Hudibras, about to enter 
Upon another gates adventure." 


Urn, G, a common note of assent, pronounced with the lips 

Uncanny, N.E, suspected of evil doings, unruly, difficult to 

deal with. 
Unket, Unco, N.E, strange, wonder, very. Sco. ("Uncuth, 

unknowne, it also sometimes signifieth a stranger." — Ver- 

Unkoes, N.E, wonders, news. 
Unlickt cub, C, a rude and ignorant young person. 
Unlucky, C, mischievous. 
Unpossable, G-, impossible. 
Unreglar, G, irregular. 

Unsarrat, C, N.E, and Unserret, N.E, not served. 
Upbank, G, uphill, upwards. 
Uphod, Uppoad, C, Uphad, N.E, uphold. " Aa\ uphod ta it 's 

true." t 

Upo', N.E, upon. 
Upreet, G, upright. 
Ups, C, fatigues. " This het weather and hard work fairly 

ups a body. 
Upsettan an' doon throssan, C, N.E. This phrase is used in 

identifying a person ; as, " it 's his varra sel, upsettan an' 

doon throsn." 
Upsides wid, C, to be revenged on. 
Ur, Ir, C, N.E, are. " Hoo ur ya?" 
Urlin, P, a dwarf or dwarfish thing. 
Urran, C, Irrin, N.E, Irwin. 
Urrant, C, are not. 
Urph, N.E, a dirty and diminutive person or child, one of 

dwarfish growth. 


Usable, C, fit for use. 
Usefuller, G, more useful. 

Vagran, C, vagrant. 

Vally, G, value. 

Vallidom, C, the value. " t Aa waddent ge t' vallidom of an 

oald sang for o' t' set o' them." 
Varly, Varraly, C, verily, truly. 
Varman, Varment, C, S.W, vermin. 
Varra, C, S.W, Varry, N.E, very. 
Varse, C, verse. 

Vayper, C, N.E, to caper, exult, vapour. 
Yeeal, S.W, veal. 

Ventersom, G, adventurous, rash. 
Viewly, G-, handsome, pleasing to look upon. 
Vinnekar, G, vinegar, 
Vitlin, G, victualling. 
Vittles, G, victuals. 

Vooag, C, N.E, repute. " He 's i' full vooag noo." 
Vwoat, G, vote. 


Wa, C, why, well. " Wa noo than ? " 

Wa, Wah, Wid, C, S.W, We, N.E, with. " Gang wa Tom." 

Waad, C, S.W, Weayd, N.E, wade. Sax. and Teut. waden. 

" An' theer 's a lad ahint yon trees 
Wad weayd for me abeun the knees, 
Sea tell yer mind, or, gin ye please, 
Nea langer fash us beath, man." 


Waaw, Waww, C, Wawwl, S.W, the wail of an infant ; silly talk. 

" Wawwan like a cat." 
Wabble, Waddle, Waggle, G, to rock sideways in walking. Teut. 



Wad, G, would ; blacklead. 

Waddent, G, would not. 

Waddent cud dea 't, C, N.E, could not do it. 

Wad-eater, C, India rubber. 

Waff, Whaff, G, puff of wind, quiff. 

Waffish, C, weakly, feeble. 

Waffle, G, to waver, to be undecided. Scand. veifla, to vibrate. 

Waffler, G, an unsteady person, one not to be depended on. 

Waistrel, G, an unthrifty person. 

Waits, G, Christmas out-door musicians. Practised in Carlisle 

till about 1825. 
Wake, C, S.W, weak. 

Walla, C, weak, faint from want or illness ; tasteless, insipid. 
Wallet, G, a long bag open at the middle and closed at the 

ends. Nearly out of use, 1856. 
Wallop, C, N.E, to beat, to dangle loosely. 
Wammel, G, to walk with a rocking motion. " Wammelan like 

an eel." 
Wan, G, won. "Jackson wan t' belt on Caarel sands." 
Wand, C, W r an, N.E, having wound, did wind. 
Wandy, C, lengthy and flexible, as a loilly wand. 
Wandly, C, gently, quietly. Scand. vandlega, carefully. 
Wandren, G, wandering. 
Wankle, G, weak, feeble. "Poor Jemmy! he's varra wankle:' 

Ang.-Sax. wancol, unstable. 
Wanter, G, a marriageable person. 
Wap, C, N.E, to wrap or enfold, a bundle of straw. 
Waar, C, S.W, Ware, N.E, to expend. 
War, C, S.W, Wor, Wur, N.E, were. 
Warang, Wrang, C, N.E, wrong. 

Wardays, G, the six working days in the week. Goth, hwardag. 
Wareet, C, right. Nearly obsolete, 1850. 
Wark, G, ache, work. " It 's slow wark to sup buttermilk wid a 

pitchfork." Ang.-Sax. wcerc, pain. 
Wark fwok, G, labourers. 

Warld, Warreld, C, S.W, Worl, Warl, N.E, world. 
Warm, G, to beat. " Aa\ warm tha." 


Warn, Warnt, G, to assure, to warrant. " Aas warnt tha it is." 

Warn, C, to bid to or give notice of a funeral. 

Warnin, C, the circuit invited to a funeral. 

Warridge, G, the withers of a horse. 

Warrishin, C, a great deal, abundance. " Sec a warrishin o' 

sooins an' yal ! " 
Warp, C, to lay eggs. 
Ware, Waar, G, beware. 
Warse, Waar, G, worse. "Warse an' warse, like Workiton 

dark." A common toast is, " May niver waar be amang 

us ! " — meaning both war and worse. Sax. warr, worse. 
Warse ner git oot, C, excessively bad, something worse than 

being ordered out of the house. 
Warsen, G, to grow worse. 
Waster ? G, was there ? were there ? 
Wat, Watty, G, Walter. 
Wath, G, a ford through a stream. 
Watter, G, water. 

Watter ask, G, a newt or water lizard. 
Watterbrash, C, N.E, a gushing overflow of saliva. 
Watter gwoat, C, a place in a stream across which a rack or pole 

is placed, to prevent cattle tresspass ; and the rack or pole 

Watter jaw't, G, potatoes left too long in the water after being 

boiled are water jaw't and spoiled. 
Watter stang, G, a pole fixed across a stream. 
Wattles, C, the gill appendages of a game cock. 
Waugh, G, the bark of a pup or whelp. 
Wax, G, to grow larger, to swell out. Sax. weaxen. 
Way, Wea, N.E, woe, to be sorry. 
Ways me ! Wazes me ! C, exclamations of lament. " Woe 

is me ! " 
Waze, Weze, N.E, a cushioned ring to place on the head, to 

carry weights upon. See Boss. 
Wazzent, G, was not. 
Weage, N.E, wage. 
Weager, N.E, wager. 


Weamm, G, the womb. 

Wear, N.E, to turn or stop cattle or sheep. 

Wearin illness, C, consumption. 

Wearr, C, wore. 

Weary, C, tiresome, troublesome. " It 's a weary rwoad to 

Warnel fell." 
Weayst, N.E, the waist; waste. 
Weaystcoat, N.E, waistcoat. 
Weather-go, C, the end of a rainbow, as seen in the morning 

in showery weather. 
Webster, C, S.W, Wobster, N.E, a weaver of webs. 
Wedder, G, weather, a wether sheep. Dan. weder, storm. 
Weddiners, G, a wedding party. 
Weddit, G, wedded. 
Wee, C, N.E, little, small. Sco. 
Wee-ans, C, N.E, children, little ones. 
Weef an' stray, C, waif and stray ; cattle, &c, gone astray — the 

owner not being known ; vagrants, without house or home. 
Weeky, C, N.E, Weeaky, S.W, moist, juicy. 
Weekiness, G, moisture. 
Weel, G, well. 

Weel, C, N.E, Weez, S.W, we will. " Weez ga heamm." 
Weel, C, Weeal, S.W, Wale, N.E, to pick out, to select, 

Scand. vol. 
Weet, C, N.E, Weeat, S.W, to wet; rain. " It weets fast noo. : ' 
Weet, S.W, with it. " He com weet' cwoach." 
Weet yer whissle, C, N.E, take a hearty drink. 
Well, C, S.W, Wol, N.E, to weld. 
Welsh, C, S.W, watery, insipid, tasteless. 
Welt, C, S.W, to overturn, upset. Butt welt — to turn the buts 

of sheaves to the wind to dry. Scand. velta, to upset. 
Welt, Whelt, Whelk, C, to beat. 

Welts, C, the " rig and fur " parts of the tops of stockings. 
Wents, C, narrow lanes in the towns of Cockermouth and 

Wentit, C, Waintit, N.E, just turning sour. " Thunnery 

weather wents milk." 


Wesh, C, N.E, Weysh, S.W, wash. 

Wesh club, C, S.W, the pool in which sheep are washed. 

Wey, Weyya, C, Wey, Wya, N.E, well, why; a note of assent. 

Weyde, N.E, wide. Sco. 

Weyfe, N.E, wife. Sco. 

Weyle, N.E, wile. Sco. 

Weyne, N.E, wine. Sco. 

Weyt, C, S.W, a vessel made like a tambourine, and used for 

lifting grain in the barn, — it is made of sheep's skin 

covering a wooden hoop. 
Weys, G, beam and scales, weighs. 

Wezzan, C, S.W, Wizzan, N.E, the gullet. Spenser, the throat. 
Whaa, S.W, who. 
Whack, G, a blow. 
Whacker, G, a large one. 
Whaker, C, N.E, quaker. 
Whale, G-, to cudgel, to beat. 
Whalin, G, a beating with a stick. 
Whamp, C, the wasp. " Keen as a whamp." 
Whang, C, a lump. "A whang o' cheese." To throw, to hit; 

a leathern shoe tie, a leathern strap used in stitching cart 

harness, a thong. Sax. thwang. 
Whap, Gr, a blow. 
Whapper, Gr, a large one. 
Whart, N.E, quart. 
What, G, an often used expletive. " What, Jemmy, hoo is ta ? " 

" I 's gaily, how 's thou ? an' hoo 's o' at heamm ? " " What, 

we 're o' middlin, aa think." 
Whatn ? N.E, what ? " Whatn clock is 't ? " 
Whatsomiver, G, whatsoever. 
Whats smatter? C, what is the matter, or reason? 
Whaup, N.E, the curlew. Sco. 
Whay feasst, G, pale countenanced. 
Whedder, G, whether. 
Wheeat, S.W, wheat. 

Waahivver, S.W, Wheeivver, N.E, whoever. 
Wheen, N.E, an undefined number, a few. Sco. 


Wheezle, Gr, to breathe with difficulty. " He wheezles like a 

pursy horse." Sax. hweosan. 
Whelk, C, N.E, to thump, 
Whelker, C, N.E, a large one. 
Whemmel, C, to overwhelm, overturn. 
Whew, C, haste. " Sec a whew he 's in ! " 
Whewtle, C, a low, modulated whistle. 
Whick, G-, alive, quick. 
Whickflu, C, whitlow. 
Whicknin, C, a small quantity of yeast, sufficient to set a baking 

of bread to ferment ; quickening. 
Whicks, 0, N.E, roots of couchgrass, young thorns. 
Whidder, G, to shudder, shiver, tremble. Scand. hvidra. 
Whidderer, C, N.E, a very large or powerful one. 
Whiff, G, quiff. 

Whiff, N.E, a transient view, a glance. 
While, C, Wheyle, N.E, until. " Stay while I come back." 
Whiles, C, Wheyles, N.E, sometimes. "Whiles he's here, an 

whiles he 's here. 
Whillimer cheese, C, the poorest of cheese — imputed to originate 

in the township of Whillimoor, but common over the county. 
Whilk, G, which. ("While or Whilk, which. In the north of 

England they yet say ghuilke." — Verstegan, 1534.) Dan. 

Whilkan, G, which one. 

Whim, G, silent, quiet in speech or action, running smoothly. 
Whimper, C, a low whine or cry. " Git away to bed, barns, an' 

niwer a whimper." 
Whim wham, C, a fanciful trifle. 
Whin cowe, C, Whun cowe, N.E, a whin stem. 
Whinge, G, to whine. 

Whinner, C, Whinny, S.W, Whunner, N.E, to neigh. 
Whintin, C, a dark-coloured slate, found on Skiddaw. When 

struck it gives out sounds, and the "musical stones" are of it. 
Whishin, C, Whushin, N.E, cushion. 
Whisht, C, S.W, Whush, N.E, hush, listen; quietly. "As 

whisht as a mouse." 


Whisk, C, Whusk, N.E, to move quickly. "She come whiskan 
bye like a fleean thing." Teut. wisch. 

Whisk, G, whist. 

Whissle, C, S.W, Whussle, N.E, whistle, 

Whissenday, C, S.W, Whussenday, N.E, Whitsuntide. 

White, C, quite. 

White, Whittle, C, S.W, Wheyte, N.E, to whittle or cut a stick, 
so that it is made white. 

Whitefish, C, flattery. 

Whitten, C, Whitehaven. 

Whittle, G, a knife. Sax. hvjettan, to cut sticks into small 

Whittlegate, C. Clergymen and schoolmasters had formerly 
the privilege of using their whittles at the tables of their 
parishioners, at known and stated intervals, by way of 
helping out their scanty stipends. The custom still (1858) 
exists, in one or two fell dales. 

Whoar, C, Whaar, S.W., where. 

Whol, G, hole. 

Whornpipe, N.E, hornpipe. 

Why, C, S.W, Wheye, N.E, a heifer or quey. Dan. qvie, cow. 

Why-i ! Why-i ! C, to cry out like a lamed dog. 

Wid, C, S.W, Wud, Wuth, N.E, with. 

Widdam, C, S.W, Wuddam, N.E, with him. 

Widder, G, to wither. 

Wide geattit, C, walking in a stradling manner, bandy legged. 

Wid-in, G, within. 

Widness, C, Weydness, N.E, width. 

Wid-oot, C, Wid-awte, S.W, without. 

Widdy, C, Wuddy, N.E, withy, a band of platted willows, form- 
ing a bad apology for iron in hanging gates, 

Widdy, N.E, a band of platted willows affixed round the neck 
of a stray animal when in the lord of the manor's pound. 
The widdy remains a year and a day, when, if not claimed, 
the "waif" may be sold, or be kept by the lord of the 

Wilk, C, the bark of a young dog when in close pursuit. 


Willent, Winnet, Weent, C, Wullent, Wunna, N.E, will not. 
Wills, C, doubts. " Aaz i' wills whether to gang or nit." 
Willy, C, S.W, Saughtree, N.E, the willow. 
Willy wands, C, Wully wans, N.E, the young shoots of the 

Wilta ? C, S.W, Wulta ? N.E, wilt thou? 
Wimma, C, S.W, Wumma, N.E, with me. 
Wind, C, S.W, Win, Wun, N.E, wind — pronounced short, as in 

tin, pin, &c. 
Windy, G-, noisy. " Mair wind ner woo, like clippin a swine." 
Wine berries, C, N.E, red currants. 
W 7 inje ! C, a gladsome exclamation of surprise or wonder. 

" Winje, wife, what a berry puddin ! " 
Win in, N.E, to get in the hay or corn, &c. 
Winnel strea, Gr, the stem of the couchgrass. " As wake as a 

Winsh, C, to wince. 
Winsom, N.E, lively and pretty. Sco. 
Winter proud, C, Winter prawwd, S.W, winter wheat in too 

forward a state of growth. 
Wipe, Gr, a hint. " She gives him many a wipe about it." 
Wise like, N.E, wise and prudent. 
Wishy washy, Gr, weak, worthless. 
Wisk, C, S.W, Wusk, N.E, a light and short shower. 
Wisp, C, S.W, Wusp, N.E, a handful of hay or straw, &c. 

Teut. wischen, to wipe. 
Wizzel, C, the weasel. 

Wizzent, C, lean, thin, withered. Ang.-Sax. wisnian, to dry up. 
Wo, C, Waa, S.W, N.E, wall. 
Woath, G, Ayth, N.E, oath. 
Woasthouse, C, the inn where we put up. 
Woats, Ayts, N.E, oats. Sax. ata, ate. 
W T ob, N.E, web. 
Wobster, N.E, a weaver. 
Wo-er, C, Waa-er, S.W, N.E, a waller. 
Wokan, C, awake, awaken. 
Woke-rife, N.E, sleepless. Sco. 


Wole-eyed, C, some horses and dogs have one or both eyes 

nearly white, and are thus termed. 
Woo, Oo, Ooa, G, wool. 

" Tarry woo, tarry woo, tarry woo is ill to spin; 
Card it weel, card it weel, card it weel ere you begin; 
For when carded, row'd and spun, 
Then the work is hofelins done ; 
But when woven, drest, and clean, 
It may he deeding for a queen." 

Old Song. 

Worder, N.E, order. 

Workan by girt, C, working by contract. 

Workiton, C, Workington. 

Worniment, N.E, ornament. 

Wosler, N.E, ostler. 

Wramp, Ramp, C, a sprain. 

Wreyt, N.E, write. Sco. 

Wud, N.E, mad (" Wod, furious or mad. Wee yet retayne, in 
some parts of England, the word wodnes, for furiousnesse 
or madnesse." — Verstegan.) 

Wull, N.E, will. Sco. 

Wummel, Gr, an augur or wimble. 

Wun, C, woollen. 

Wun, N.E, to dwell. " He wuns ayont yon hill." Sax. ivunian, 
to inhabit. 

Wun up, C, N.E, wound up. " He wun up his watch." 

Wunz ! an oath or exclamation. 

Wurdy, N.E, worthy. 

Wussell, Russell, Gr, to wrestle. 

Wusset, C, worsted. 

Wyke, C, the corner of the mouth ; an opening between rising- 


Yaa, Yan, C, S.W, Yin, Yen, N.E, one. 

Yaa-day, C, a common retrospection. " It happent yaa day 
last week." 



Yabble, C, able. 

Yaddle, C, S.W, to speak quick and unwisely. 

Yage, N.E, age. 

Yak, Yaak, C, S.W, Yek, N.E, oak. 

Yakker, C, S.W, Yikker, N.E, acre. 

Yal, C, S.W, Yel, N.E, ale. Sax. eala. 

Yal-jaw't, C, partly intoxicated with ale. 

Yalla, G, yellow. 

Yalla yowderin, N.E, the yellow hammer or bunting. 

Yammer, C, N.E, to talk much in a loose rambling manner. 

Yance, C, S.W, Yence, N.E, once. 

Yannanudder, C, one another. 

Yan's sel, C, S.W, Yin's sel, N.E, one's self. 

Yap,* C (probably a corruption of rap), a mischievous lad. "A 

little dog." — Bailey. 
Yark, G, to strike furiously or fiercely. " As hard as he could 

Yas, C, S.W, Yace, N.E, ace. 
Yat, C, S.W, Yet, N.E, a gate. 
Ye, S.W, you. 

Yeaz, S.W, you shall. " Yeaz come in, ye'r like." 
Yeaz, Yeazy, S.W, ease, easy, 
Yayko, N.E, echo. 

Yedder, C, S.W, Yether, N.E, a long rod used in hedging. 
Yerbs, Yarbs, C, N.E, herbs. 
Yerd, C, S.W, Yurd, N.E, yard. 
Yerdfasts, G, stones fast in the earth, and just visible at the 

Yerl, C, S.W, Yuri, N.E, earl. 
Yerls, Yarls, C, N.E, Arls, N.E, money given to confirm a 

Yern, G, to earn. 
Yern, Gairn, N.E, yarn. 
Yernest, G, earnest. 
Yerth, G, and Yurth, N.E, earth. 

* " Aup, used in the north for a wayward child." — Brockett. This may be 
the origin of our word Yap. 


Yer-sel, G, yourself. 

Yetlin, N.E, a pan with a bule or bow. 

Yigga, N.E, ague. 

Yiglet, N.E, aglet, tag. 

Yik, N.E, to ache. 

Yilp, C, to yelp. 

Yis, G, yes. 

Yist, C, Yast, S.W, yeast. 

Yisterneet, C, S.W, Yistreen, N.E, yesterday evening. 

Yit, G, yet. 

Yod, Yoad, G, N.E, Yaad, S.W, an old mare. 

Yoller, C, N.E, to halloo. 

Yooar, C, N.E, Yawar, S.W, your. 

Yooer, C, N.E, the udder. 

Yool, C, N.E, Yawl, S.W, to weep. 

Yope, Yaup, C, Yaap, S.W, N.E, to whoop, to shout. 

Youngermer, N.E, younger persons. 

Yowe, C, N.E, ewe. 

Yowe-chin't, C, ewe chinned, chin retiring. 

Yowe-locks, C, locks of wool taken from the udder of the ewe, 

to enable the newly-dropped lamb to find the teat. 
Yowe-yorlin, Yowe-yornel, C, N.E, and Jack durnhill, N.E, the 

earth-nut — Bunias flexuosum. 
Yowl, Gowl, C, N.E, to howl. 
Yubben, Yubm, C, oven. 
Yubn steann, C, the stone that closes the oven's mouth. A 

short boy is said to have had the oven stone placed on his 

head, and a tall one is said to require it to control his 

Yucks, N.E, itches, is tickled. Sco. 
Yur, C, S.W, the corn-spurry plant — Spergula arvensis. 


Zookers ! Zukkers ! C, S.W, an exclamation of surprise or 




Ben wort, C, the daisy — Bellis 'perennis. 

Bisky, C, biscuit. 

Eyan away, N.E, right away. 

Scrub grass, E, the Equisetum, or horse tail plant, used in 

polishing fire-irons, &c. 
Skutter, C, a bustling run, without much speed. " He skuttert 

an ! ran, bit gat laal away." 


' ' ' I I ■ ■ 

- - '.;,-:•,. 698 mm 







'At is 5 t, C, that it is. " It 's gay queer wark, 'at is 't." 
Cockgard, C, Cockdyke, N.E, a mode of hedging — the same as 

Stower an' yedder. 
Dogflower, E, the ox-eye daisy. Chrysanthemum leueanthe- 

Glaz't, C, varnished with dirt. 
Hayle, C, to do forcibly. " She cough't tudder neet till sweat 

hay'lt off her." 
Hing-y, C, a heaviness from incipient ailment. 
A howker, C, a large one. " It's a howkan lee." 
Kayter, C. kind, friendly. 
Maynt, C, may not. 

Eee, C, to sift in a peculiar manner through a reean sieve. 
Spentickels (Abbey Holme) spectacles. 
Torrel. "Ane kill quhair cornes are dryed." This word is 

probably now extinct. It is given in the Life and 

Miracles of Sancta Bega, relating to an occurrence at 




# < 


X ^, 

o X 

V v, Deacidified using the Bookkeeper process. 

fJ ^> A x Neutralizing agent: Magnesium Oxide 
Treatment Date: Nov. 2006 


1 1 1 Thomson Park Drive 
Cranberry TownshtD PA 16066